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The town chapters are organized with history, industry, schools, churches and villages first, followed by a biographical sketch section. I have split the biographical sketch section from the rest for several towns. The complete Barnstable chapter, No. XVI, includes pages 366-452

History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts

edited by Simeon L. Deyo.

1890. New York: H. W. Blake & Co

pages 366-418 of CHAPTER XVI.

TOWN OF BARNSTABLE.

Natural Features. —Early Industries. —Settlement. —Indian Lands and Names. —Names of Settlers. —Incorporation. —Purchase from Indians. —County Road. —Early Mills. —Common Lands. —The Revolution. —War of 1812. —Population. —Schools. —Civil History. —Churches. —Cemeteries and Villages: (Barnstable, West Barnstable, Old Cotuit, Cotuit Port, Osterville, Wianno Beach, Hyannis, Hyannis Port, Centreville, Craigsville, Marston's Mills)—Societies.

Biographical Sketches [in separate file].

    WHILE Yarmouth on the east has been dismembered and Sandwich on the west has become the mother of Bourne, Barnstable, the central town of the original three, and still the central one of the five, remains nearly the same as originally laid out. Its historical prominence as one of the original towns of 1639, and its geographical position, led to its selection as the shire town when the county was organized in 1685. It is trapezoidal in shape, the western bounds, along Sandwich and Mashpee being eleven miles in extent, and the eastern along Yarmouth six. Vineyard sound laves its southern shore along ten miles of beautiful beach, while Cape Cod bay spans six miles of Sandy neck for its northern bound. The ancient Cummaquid harbor extends across its northern part and several bays and harbors indent its southern coast. A high ridge extends east and west across the town north of the middle, south of which the surface is a vast undulating plain sloping toward the sound. The northern part contains the great salt marsh extending nearly across the town along the harbor. The streams are small and run both ways from the central ridge.

    The area of ponds in this town is greater than that of any other in the county, being over seventeen hundred acres, besides many small ones unworthy of special mention. The largest is Great pond, variously known as Nine-mile or Iyanough's, embracing an area of seven hundred acres, situated about the center of the town, and having only an artificial outlet which was opened by the Nine-mile Pond Fishing Company. This pond furnishes many kinds of excellent fish.

    Of the twenty-seven ponds embraced in the town only three others have visible outlets. Spruce pond, of twelve acres, has Bridge creek, and the pond of eighteen acres south of West Barnstable has Scorton creek for their respective outlets. The other ponds are Long pond of sixty-three acres, in the west part of the town; Steward's, of thirty-

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six; Muddy, of twenty-five acres, at Newtown; Shubael, of fifty; Round pond of thirteen acres, south of Shubael; Cotuit ponds, west of Shubael pond and the plains, the most southerly containing 126 acres, the one north of this 118, and the most northerly one 147 acres; Pondsville pond, eleven acres; Lovell's, forty-eight, in the west part; one north of Osterville has fourteen acres and another fifteen; Mill pond, sixteen, west of Centreville; a pond of twelve acres north of the last; Shallow pond, east of Iyanough, has ninety acres; Hathaway's, fifteen; pond north of the last, twenty-one acres; Israel, twenty-one, in east part; Small, twenty-two; Half-way, twelve: Lewis, ten; Long pond of sixty-nine acres, east of Centreville, this also has an artificial outlet; two ponds west of Hyannis, containing respectively, twelve and ten acres.

    The boulders of Barnstable are profusely scattered from the north shore to the summit of the ridge, which extends in an east-westerly direction through the town. Generally these lands are the most fertile. South of the water shed no stones of any significance are found, and the soil is generally sandy. Stone fences, which are general on the north side, are not found on the south side, and the foundation stones for buildings in Osterville and other villages on the south side have been carted from a distance.

    The soil on the south side of the town is somewhat sandy on the uplands, and a rich loam in the valleys and around its numerous ponds, while near the north shore the soil is a heavier loam. The varied forms of agriculture, including the great cranberry industry, constitute the principal land occupation of the people in the sparsely settled and rural communities. Brick are manufactured at West Barnstable, and boat building on the south shore is still an industry. Maritime enterprises early furnished employment to many, and became an important source of revenue for the people. In 1839 men of this town were filling every branch of maritime pursuits—from the highest positions in the best ships of the Union to the humblest coaster, to the number of 250, and after that the number increased until about 1855.

    The superior advantages from its waters, the vast marshes which furnished an abundance of ha}', the supposed richness of its soil, and the many acres already cleared and cultivated by the natives, were the arguments that induced the whites to make the first settlement of the town. Permission was granted by the Plymouth court in 1639 "for seating a congregation," whose leaders had intended to settle at Sippecan (now Rochester). But a diversity of opinion arose, and the growing wish to settle at Mattacheese led to a division of the congregation into three companies, who should pray for direction in the election of committees " to set clown the township." A former grant of Mattacheese to Mr. Callicot and others, of Dorchester, having

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been rescinded, .and other impediments removed, the little band determined to seek the lands at Mattacheese. This was the Indian name of lands, now in Barnstable and the northern part of Yarmouth, adjoining the ancient Cummaquid harbor. The lands of this township contained other Indian tribes at the south and west, each having its sachem, by whom the community was ruled. The names of the small tribes and their tracts were identical. Iyanough's land and tribe was south—midway between the bay and sound; his name was often spelled Janno and Ianno and Hyanno. Chequaket, now Centreville; Coatuit, Santuit, Mistic, Skanton, partially in Sandwich; and Cotocheeset were communities and lands south of and around Iyanough's. With the remembrance that Cummaquid harbor is now Barnstable harbor, the reader will be better able to follow the first settlement and further purchase of the town.

    After the determination of the congregation to "set down at Mattacheese," on the 26th of June a fast was held at Scituate, where this colony were residing, "that the Lord in his presence" go with them to this new land. Rev. John Lothrop, the beloved pastor of the church there, by his letters, found among Governor Winslow's papers, has furnished many facts concerning the trials of himself and associates as to where the settlement should be. Some historians assert that Joseph Hull, Thomas Dimock and their few associates had settled here during the summer, or in advance of Mr. Lothrop and his associates; and there are circumstances that substantiate that. On June 4, 1639 (June 14, N. S.), the colony court granted permission to Messrs. Hull, Dimock and others "to erect a plantation or town at or about a place called by the Indians Mattacheese;" and Rev. Mr. Lothrop, in his diary, said, that upon their arrival at Mattacheese, "After praise to God in public was ended, we divided into three companies to feast together—some at Mr. Hull's, some at Mr. Mayo's, and some at Br. Lumbard's Sr." Prior to this—sometime in 1638—Rev. Stephen Bachilor and a few associates made a fruitless attempt to settle in what is now the northeastern portion of Barnstable. The location was for a time considered as a part of Yarmouth; hence some writers make Rev. Bachilor a settler of Yarmouth.

    There is no other record of the settlement of Barnstable until the arrival of Rev. John Lothrop and his associates on the 21st of October, 1639 (N. S.). The greater part of Mr. Lothrop's church accompanied him to Barnstable, leaving the remaining few "in a broken condition." Besides Joseph Hull and Thomas Dimock and their associates as mentioned in the grant, we find here in the autumn of 1639, John Lothrop, the pastor, Mr. Mayo, Mr. Lumbard, sr., Isaac Wells, Samuel Hinckley, Samuel Fuller, Robert Shelley, Edward Fitzrandal, Henry Ewell, Henry Rowley, James Cudworth, William Crocker, John

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Cooper, Henry Cobb, George Lewis, Robert Linnell, William Parker, Edward Caseley, William Caseley, Henry Bourne, Anthony Annable, and Isaac Robinson.

    The town was incorporated September 3, 1639, and on the first Tuesday of December, the same year, its deputies took their seats in the general court.

    Others came to the town during the fall, winter and spring following, so that in 1640 we find here these heads of families in addition to those already mentioned: Thomas Allyn, Nathaniel Bacon, Austin Bearse, William Bills, Abraham Blush, John Bursley, John Caseley, Henry Coggen, John Crocker, Dolor Davis, Richard Foxwell. Roger Goodspeed, James Hamblin, Thomas Hatch, Thomas Hinckley, Thomas Huckins, John Hull or Hall, Samuel Jackson, Laurence Lichfield, Thomas Lothrop, John Smith, Thomas Shaw, John Scudder, John and Samuel Mayo, Thomas Lombard, Bernard Lombard, and Robert Linnet. Before the lands were divided others had arrived, among whom were: Richard Berry, Francis Crocker, John and Nicholas Davis, William Tilley, David Linnet, Benjamin and James Lothrop, Nathaniel Mayo, Samuel Lothrop, John Foxwell, Thomas Blossom, John Blower, Thomas Boreman, William Pearse, John Russel, Nicholas Sympkins, Laurence Willis, and Samuel House.

    A very few of those mentioned returned or removed elsewhere, whose names do not appear again, but the larger portion of these settlers are represented to-day in Barnstable by lineal descendants, and generally by name. Other settlers, and the sons of these already given, are named as freemen and voters in the civil acts of the proprietors, so that the reader will be enabled to trace the "new comers " to 1670.

    The settlement thus begun in the Mattacheese territory was confined to the northern portion of the present town until 1644, when on the 26th of August, a further purchase of lands of the Indians was made by the town, being a portion to the southwest of that already settled by the whites. It was purchased of Serunk, a South Sea chief, and extended from the Sandwich line easterly; the consideration paid was four coats and three axes. The deed signed by Serunk, by mark, was witnessed by Anthony Annable, Henry Cobb, Thomas Allen, John Smith, Laurence Willis, and Thomas Dimock.

    The second purchase, in 1647, was of Nepoyetum, Indian, by Thomas Dimock and Isaac Robinson, who were appointed by the town to act for them. The deed was signed by the parties and by Thomas Hinckley and Tauonius, Indian, as witnesses, conveying land for which the town was to build three-score rods of fence, give him two coats and do certain plowing.

    The next purchase was in 1648, of Paupmunnuck, a South Sea In-

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dian. In this purchase Miles Standish acted for the settlers, and secured the southern part of the town from the Mashpee line east to the Oyster river, and to Iyanough, or Ianno's lands on the east, and to Nepoyetum's lands on the north. The pay for this was two brass kettles and some fencing done. This completed the purchase of the western part of the town from bay to sound and along the northern part; and the bounds between Sandwich and Barnstable were fixed in 1652, substantially as now. The lands at Cotuit were then part of Mashpee, but have been since added to Barnstable. In 1659 the first bounds between Yarmouth and Barnstable were fixed, nearly one mile west of the present bounds.

    In 1664 a purchase of the lands of Iyanough was perfected, which gave to the town more substantially its present area. The deed was taken for the town by Thomas Hinckley, Nathaniel Bacon and Tristam Hull, being for land at the South sea extending easterly to Yarmouth, northerly to that bought of Nepoyetum, and westerly to that purchased of Paupmunnuck, except that given to Nicholas Davis, which soon after was purchased by the town. This deed embraced the southeastern part of the present town, except a tract owned by John Yanno, son of Ianough, in and around Centreville, which was purchased of him in 1680 by Thomas Hinckley in behalf of the town. Some subsequent minor purchases of small reservations brought the lands of the town to the ownership of the proprietors, and over this territory the settlers were fast erecting their rude cabins.

    Of course difficulties arose regarding bounds of lands, and in 1658 the bounds between Mashpee and Barnstable were set, leaving the lands about Satuit pond to the Mashpees; and later the west bounds of Yarmouth were defined "from the centre of Stoney Cove creek due north to the sea"—substantially the present bounds. The proprietors were yet very careful as to the character of new comers, concerning which rules were made by the general court. In 1661 William Crocker and Thomas Huckins were empowered to take notice of any who should intrude themselves without the town's consent. The underlying reason, however, for such surveillance was that religions not orthodox should be kept away. There was room in town for more people if they were of the right faith, as the entire territory between the Long pond and Shoal pond had no settlers yet, and it was made " commons for the town's cattle."

    The main line of travel from these Cape towns in these early days was toward Plymouth, and the subject of a road—a main, well-defined, wide road—was agitated. The road for the time had been opened from Sandwich, south of Scorton hill, south of Honey bottom, so-called, and so easterly near the old church in the West parish, through the woods on the south side of the pond into the present road, to avoid

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the creek that had no bridge. In 1685 the court ordered a road opened through Barnstable, and sixteen men, whose names appear at the bottom of the survey, were empaneled as a jury to lay it out. The road has been since known as the "county road," and is the main street of Barnstable village. By the courtesy of Mr. Gustavus A. Hinckley, of Barnstable, we are enabled to produce a copy of the original survey, verbatim et literatim, that our readers may not only enjoy its quaintness, but locate the settlers on its sides.

    "The County road or highway laid out by ye in March and April 1686 through Barnstable is as followeth—beginning at ye bounds between Sandwich and Barnstable, running for ye most part easterly at a rock lying in Ralph Jones, his fence, ye north side of ye sd way and a heap of stones on ye south side of sd way, from thence to a red oak markt tree on ye south side of ye sd way upon ye land that was Capt. Fuller's, from thence to ye fence of John Fuller Jr., on ye south side of sd road, and a markt tree upon ye north side of ye way, from thence to marked trees on both sides of sd way at ye corner of Wm. Troop's fence where ye way goeth down to Scorton, from thence to ye foot of ye hill between ye fence of Wm Troop and a little swamp & so to ye said Troop's stone ditch on ye north side of sd road and a bound set on ye south side within ye fence of sd Troop ye sd Troop's dwelling house on ye north side of sd road, from thence to trees marked on each side of ye way by a swamp and from thence to a marked tree on ye north side of sd road bounded by a stone set in ye field on ye south side of sd road and Mr. Smith's house on ye north side to the fence of John Bursley bounded by trees marked within ye fence of ye Widdow Davis on ye south side of ye way runing between ye dwelling house of sd Widdow Davis and ye barn of sd John Bursley on ye north side of sd way & so over ye bridge called John Bursley's bridge, from thence to a marked tree on each side of sd way upon Peter Blossom's land to a stake set upon Peter Blossom's orchard, leaving ye sd Peter Blossom's house on ye south side of sd road, from thence thro ye lands of Wm Dexter bounded by several marks set up within ye fence of Phillip Dexter on ye north side of sd road, ye house of sd Phillip Dexter on ye north side of sd road & ye house of Increase Clap on ye south side bounded by a stone in ye orchard of sd Clap, through ye lands of Samuel Parker & John Crocker bounded by a markt tree and a stone within ye fence of sd Parker on ye south side of sd road by ye house of Richard Childs & ye house of Lieut John Howland on ye north side of sd road and ye barn of sd Howland on ye south his sheep yard in ye highway runing by ye house of Elder John Chipman on ye north and ye house of John Otis on ye north bounded by three marks set up within his fence on ye south side of sd road runing through or by ye foot of ye lands of Samuel Hinckley

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Senr, bounded by marks set up within John Otis his fence on ye north side of sd way, runing over ye bridge called Hinckley's bridge thro ye lands of Joseph Blish bounded by marks on ye side of ye sd way neer ye marsh between ye lands of Mr. Samuel Allin and sd Blish bounded by three marks set up within ye fence of sd Allin on ye north side of sd road & sd Allins and ye house of Joseph Blish on ye south side of sd road running by ye house of Widdow Annable's and ye house of Thomas Ewer both on ye north side of sd road bounded by two marks set within ye fence on sd Ewer's land on ye south side of sd road, running by or neer ye upper end of Deacon Crocker Junr. his land, on ye south side of a great rock partly at ye head of the lands of Austin Bearce, runing through a valley to coming into ye old road neer ye land of Thomas Huckins, always provided that Dea.. Crocker Junr. make ye way that is turned out of ye old road (at his Desire) or cause it to be made a good convenient passable way till it come into ye old road again, runing above ye houses of Thomas Huckins James Hamlin Senr. Mr. Russel neer by ye meeting house all on ye north side of sd road, by ye pond called formerly Coggins pond on ye north side of sd way leaving ye Governours house on ye south and his barn on ye north side of sd road bounded by three marks set up within his fence on ye south side of sd way, from thence runing by ye house of John Lothrop and Mr. Barnabas Lothrop on ye north side of sd way & so thro ye lands of Capt.. Lothrop between ye house of sd Capt Lothrop on ye southwest & ye house of Melatiah Lothrop on ye northeast side of sd road & along by ye house of Thomas Lothrop on ye north side of sd road being too narrow ye breadth of his stone wall in ye bottom neer his house, & so going along by Isaac Chapman's house and shop on south side of sd way being too narrow is bounded into his land on ye north side of sd way from ye corner of his stone wall to Henry Taylor's fence, sd road going along by ye house of Saml Sarjant on ye south side and ye house of John Davis Senr. on ye north side of sd way up ye hill called Cobbs hill by ye house and shop of Lieut James Lewis on ye south side of sd way too narrow at his barn three foot, & so sd road lying along neer ye house of Mr. Bacon on ye north side of sd way leaving ye house of Serjant James Cobb on ye south side & ye house of Ensign Shobel Dimock on ye north side of sd road sd way too narrow ye breadth of his fence from John Scudders to a stake set in his field in ye swamp, sd way runing along close by ye house of Henry Taylor on north side of sd way bounded by a little stone & a stake in ye swamp within ye fence on ye south side of sd way lying along by ye house of George Lewis & ye house of Thomas Hinckley on ye south side of sd way bounded by a little stone in ye swamp within his piece.. Said way runs by Saml Cobbs house & Josiah Davis his house on ye

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north side of sd way bounded by a stake in his field on ye south side and by Joseph Benjamin's fence by a stone set in his field and by three stones laid together and by a little stone drove into ye ground with little stones laid about it on south side of sd way, runing along thro ye lands of James Gorham leaving ye house of Josiah Hallett and James Gorham on north side of sd way bounded into the field of sd Gorham on south side of sd way by three stones & stones laid together at ye west corner of his fence of sd field & so thro ye lands of John Gorham leaving his house and barn on ye north side of sd road bounded by a stake set within his hay yard fence between his house and barn & so running to ye bounds of Yarmouth neer where are three great stones laid together being laid all along forty foot.

"The names of ye Jury: Capt. Lothrop, Lieut. Rowland, Ensign Dimock, James Gorham, Jabez Lumbart, James Cob, Saml Cob, Nathl. Bacon, Ensign Lumbart, Lieut. James Lewis, John Phinney, Job Crocker, Samuel Hinckley sr., Joseph Blish, Josiah Crocker, James Hamblin jr."

    The town, tiring of long trips to Plymouth for grinding, in 1687 ordered that a wind mill be built, either on Cobb's hill or the old Meeting House hill, and appropriated money and land to pay for it. Thomas Paine of Eastham constructed one on Meeting House hill, much to the satisfaction of Barnabas Lothrop and Samuel Allen, who were the committee to oversee the work. The same year John Andrews and others were granted a tract of eight or ten acres at the river by John Goodspeed's, and the benefit of the stream, "to build and keep a fulling mill." but there is no record of its being built. Roads were rapidly laid out, branching from the county road. In 1689 the same jury, whose names have been given, opened a highway into the woods opposite the Dimock house, another into the common field, and by the opening" of this communication permission was given for another fulling mill, which was erected on the river where the Goodspeeds resided—now Marston's Mills—and Thomas Macy, or Massey, was made keeper of it. The contract with the town was that it should be kept running twenty years, and it was. much longer. The reader of the present day can hardly realize that the wool and flax at that time, and a hundred years later, were spun and woven into cloth for domestic use, and the fulling mill was as necessary as the grist mill. In 1696 other roads were laid out. and Mr. Otis had permission to build a warehouse on Rendezvous creek. He was given forty feet

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square of land for the purpose, and this was the first store-house on the harbor in that part of the town east of the present court house. Rendezvous creek is said to have run northerly across the marsh, and had its source in the swamp back of Eben B. Crocker's residence.

    Prior to 1700, communities had sprung up and started the various industries that the town needed. The creeks that furnished the power for mills were south of the ridge that lines the marshes and harbor on the north side of the town. In 1696 we find along the south shore John, Benjamin and Ebenezer Goodspeed, Thomas Macy, John, James, William and Andrew Lovell, John Issum, Thomas Bumpas, Dolor Davis, Thomas Lewis, Joshua Lumbert, John Linnel, John Phinney, jr., Edward and John Lewis, Joseph Lothrop, jr., Edward Coleman, and the Hallett, Crosswell. Bearse and Claghorn families. These names are largely represented now along the southern side of the town, at Cotuit, Marston's Mills, Osterville, Centreville and Hyannis.

    In 1703, after a controversy of many years, a final division and apportionment of the land of the proprietors was made. They divided about six thousand acres among those who were entitled to the lands, and this bone of contention was removed. Too many who were not proprietors, nor their descendants or assigns, wanted rights in the commons, and the final division was much complicated by the great number of actual owners. They reserved eighty acres for schools, known as the school lot, in the south part of the town, and eight)" for the ministry, known as the minister's lot. on the north side.

    There was a poor house, prior to 1768, in the western part of the town, for that year it was "voted to build a new poor house on the site of the old one;" but when the first was built, neither tradition nor records give any date. This house of 1768 was used until 1821, when a new one was built on the farm which Parker Lombard had bequeathed "to the support of the poor forever." This is the house now in use, situated at West Barnstable. The Lombard tract mentioned, extends from the poor house north to the harbor. The old road running from the church to the cemetery is in part the eastern boundary of the tract.

    The revolutionary war occupied almost the entire thought of the people of Barnstable, but did not preclude the idea of the importance of a mail from the large centers on the main land; and in 1775 the town conferred with Sandwich concerning a mail and stage line to Plymouth and Boston, which was very soon opened. Barnstable was early in line with her first quota of troops for the war, and had Joseph Otis, Nymphas Marston and Sturgis Gorham as its first war committee. The so-called tory element strongly existed here, and at a town meeting in 1776, at which 140 voters were present, only sixty-five voted on the question of sustaining the continental congress in its

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declaration of the independence of the colonies—thirty for and thirty-five against. A strong resolution was at once signed by the loyal citizens of the town, condemning the action of the meeting, and urging as the reason for such a vote, a misunderstanding of the question and intimidation by lawless people at the meeting. The near future proved that the vote was not the sentiment of the town, and delegates were sent who were instructed to enact such rules as in their mature deliberation "would conduce to the safety, peace and happiness of the people. The war was long and the colonies were young and poor, and in 1781, before peace "was declared, Barnstable failed to send the quota required for Rhode Island and West Point; but by the almost superhuman efforts of the leading men, the town's credit was retrieved, and peace, in 1783, dawned upon a people who had, for the years of the war, endured a more than proportionate share of its attendant evils.

    The war of 1812 made its calls upon the patriotism and means of the Barnstable people, as upon others, and the town responded as promptly.

    The prosperity of the town during the first half of the present century was marked; a printing office was permanently established, and every part of the town seemed to open into new life and greater importance. The descendants of the sterling fathers of the town were filling the highest places in the courts and councils of the land, or were merchant princes in the distant cities. In 1839, September 3d, these children visited their homes to assist in celebrating the 200 hundredth anniversary of the birth of Barnstable as a town. It was a scene of reverential devotion, enjoyed alike by its citizens and the officials of the commonwealth. John G. Palfrey, a former resident of Barnstable, delivered the address, which has been pronounced an able production. At this date the town was at the acme of its strength and beauty; its harbor was busy with shipping and its shores were white with salt works; its fields were golden with ripening harvests, and its many spires of church and school edifices pointed to God and knowledge. At that date the statistics indicate no beggars in the town, no idlers nor sots, and only three in jail—and they foreigners.

    The population had steadily increased to the year 1860, as the census report by decades will show. In the Colonial report of 1765 it was 2,108; in 1776, 2,610. The United States report of 1790 was 2,610; in 1800, 2,964; 1810, 3,646; 1820, 3,824; 1830, 3,974; 1840, 4,301; 1850, 4,901; 1860, 5,129; 1870, 4,793; 1880, 4,242; and in 1885 the population of the town was 4,050.

    The people of Barnstable in one respect overdid the Puritan idea of using the meeting house for public purposes, for their public meetings were continued in that manner until nearly the middle of this

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century—the present town house being the first building erected by the town for civil uses only. About 1840 the subject of a town house was agitated—some wishing to utilize what is now the Baptist church, and others wishing to have it on the south side of the town. Zenas D. Bassett and others were finally appointed a committee to locate a town house at the geographical centre of the town, which was found to be within the bounds of the Iyanough pond. It was therefore decided to locate it where it now stands, and a good building was erected soon after. It is centrally situated, has every convenience outside and in, and is a credit to the town.

    Notwithstanding the lapse of 250 years since the incorporation of Barnstable, which great period would seem to preclude such an idea, a singular memento of primitive times was brought to the eyes of the citizens of Barnstable village on the 18th of March, 1889, in the form of a young deer that came from the woods south of the railroad station; he ran across the track, down through the fields in front of the Patriot office, by the jail to the vicinity of W. D. Holme's shop, and from thence back, across the track, to the woods again. He went over fences and walls with easy bounds, and presented a novel sight to those fortunate enough to witness it.

    Schools.—The proprietors' records indicate an early and unflagging interest in the means of education. In fact none of the older towns were so prompt in appropriating annually the requisite fund for sustaining the common school. As early as 1714 the town voted an additional sum to their accustomed appropriation, that the teacher could teach six months in the south part of the town—dividing the year with the settlement in the north part. Prior to this time one school had served the purpose of the town. In 1731 a grammar school was added to the common school and £65 was voted for its support. In 1732 Mr. Bennett was employed as master and was to divide his time between the two parishes, casting lots to determine which should have the first term. Private dwellings were used for school purposes until 1735. when it was voted to have two grammar school masters—one in each parish—and that a schoolhouse be built. But the first school building, which was erected near the old burying ground, was not built until 1771.

    In 1789 the appropriation for schools was £150, the privations caused by the war, or internal differences not having abated the zeal of these fathers in religious and educational interests.

    The dawn of the present century found the schools of Barnstable in a prosperous condition. Every improvement in its system, as developed by the more liberal laws and enlightment of the commonwealth, had been eagerly seized by the people of this town. They also inaugurated, through individual support, a system of

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select schools which flourished many years, affording advantages not belonging to the common school. By the middle of the present century nearly a score of pretty school buildings here and there dotted the landscape of the town; and soon after, by a law of the Commonwealth the children at an inconvenient distance were conveyed to and from the schools at public expense, which greatly increased the attendance and average standing of pupils.

    Enoch T. Cobb gave the town $10,000, the income from which is devoted as he directed to the purchase of school supplies. These monies and the interest from the Percival fund have been assiduously applied, and the efforts of efficient officers have been seconded by a background of liberal public sentiment until the schools of Barnstable occupy a high plane of perfection. The sciences of physiology and hygiene, penmanship, language and music have been properly introduced with the most satisfactory results. The school buildings are commodious and neat, embracing every needed improvement, and are kept in the best possible condition. In 1849 the Hyannis section erected the best house yet seen here, and which was subsequently purchased by the town. West Barnstable has another fine one recently erected. The school building at Centreville erected since, is one of the finest edifices in the town. The publication of the names of meritorious scholars, as adopted by the school committee, has resulted in good. .The committee now publishes rules for the use of books, which the town furnishes to the schools; also rules for the care of the buildings and apparatus, and conduct of pupils, all of which has greatly advanced the cause.

    The last report of the school committee is most flattering, and the citizens may well be pleased by a comparison with other towns. Seven grammar schools are distributed through the town, also one high school, two intermediate and thirteen primaries. Thirty-four teachers have been employed during the year and twenty-five school rooms have been used in the education of the young. The registered number of pupils was 743, the average per cent, of their attendance being 90.46 for the terms of the year. The school buildings are valued at $34,000, besides the large amounts invested in apparatus and books. The amount paid for school purposes for a year is over $12,000, of which five-sixths is raised by tax.

    The distribution of the schools and their gradation is most admirably adapted to the wants of the town—section No. 1, East Barnstable, a primary; No. 3, Barnstable village, grammar and primary; 4, Pond village, a primary; 6, West Barnstable, a primary and grammar; 8. Plains, a primary; 9, Newtown, a primary; 10, Cotuit, primary; 11, Cotuit, Intermediate; Santuit, grammar and primary; 12, Marston's Mills, mixed school; 13, Osterville, primary and gram-

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mar; 15, Hyannis Port, mixed; 16, Hyannis, grammar and primary; 17, Hyannis, intermediate; 18, Hyannis, high, grammar and primary; 20, Centreville, grammar and primary; and 21, Cotuit, High-Ground, primary.

    The facts given are substantiated by the reports published in 1890 for the year 1889. This effective outgrowth is the realization of an idea of generations, a system that has evolved the government and secured liberty and prosperity. Contemplate the wisdom and foresight of the fathers who two hundred years ago struggled to establish such an unparalleled success ! They laid the foundation work of the marvelous structure that has bedecked the land with institutions, and has guided the body politic. Through these lesser and local sources —integral parts of the Commonwealth—the perpetuity of the whole system of civil and Christian liberties is secured; and to Barnstable, as a town, is much credit due for the thorough and active part taken in this foundation work.

    Civil History.—The record of the transactions of the citizens of Barnstable as a body politic does not differ materially from that of other towns, as the people were under the same government. The first acts of the community were under the sanction of an incorporated town, however crude the advantages of the inhabitants may have been. It is traditionary, but supported by private memoranda, that the first town meeting was held around the same rock where the religious meeting was held, which is described elsewhere. Not for several years was the combined meeting and town house erected; but the public meetings of the town were as regularly called as the religious.

    In the town meeting of 1640 it was ordered that no one within the plantation shall make sale of his house or lands until he has offered the same to the proprietors; but if the proprietors do not buy he must furnish a purchaser to be approved by them. The town meeting of 1641 was devoted to the laying out of lands, of which Thomas Lothrop and Bernard Lombard were appointed "measurers" to lay out and "bound with stakes." The records of these measurements are not to be found; Amos Otis, Esq., says they were filed at Plymouth, and lost by fire; he also is the author of the tradition that the lots were from six to twelve acres each and were laid out to the north of Rendezvous lane. In future town meetings the subject of divisions of lands was paramount to all others. The training grounds, with the stocks and whipping post, were not forgotten. On the green just east of the Baptist church was the old green; and in June, 1642, John Casely was condemned to be publicly whipped there, and his wife Alice was placed in the stocks while the wholesome duty was being performed.

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    There were forty-five voters in 1643. The duties of the officers of the town were increased in 1645 by the necessary arrangement for the town's quota of men for the Narragansett expedition. In 1646 the people had the new meeting house for public gatherings, as was the custom; and this invariable rule, to construct the meeting house for civil and religious meetings as soon as possible after a plantation had been seated, has followed the descendants of the Pilgrims wherever they have planted a colony.

    In 1651 the order was made to record the bounds and titles of lands in the plantation, and gate keepers were appointed; later, in 1655, it was ordered that Captain Miles Standish and Mr. Hatherly have authority to settle all difficulties with the Indians, which might be submitted to them by the deputies. In 1661 William Crocker and Thomas Huckins were appointed "to take notice of such as intrude themselves into the town without the town's consent."

    In 1662 the town meeting "ordered that the sons of the present inhabitants shall be successively received as inhabitants and allowed equal town privileges in the Commons and other privileges of the present inhabitants, at the day of their marriage, or at the age of 24, whichever happens first," and at that meeting Samuel Bacon, Samuel Fuller, Caleb Lumbard, Jabez Lumbard, Samuel Fuller, jr., Joseph Benjamin, Nicholas Bonham, James Hamblin, Thomas Lumbard, Samuel Norman, Samuel Hicks, James Cobb, Edward Coleman, John Howland, John Sargeant, John Crocker, Edward Lewis, Daniel Stewart, Thomas Ewer and John Lewis were admitted, making the number of voters in the town sixty-five, which number was increased to eighty-nine in 1670 by other additions. When the number of freemen and voters was recorded in 1670, the commons' meadows were ordered sold. The list of freemen and their widows not heretofore given, were: John Thompson, Henry Taylor, Edward Taylor, Moses Rowley, Mark Ridley, Samuel Storrs, John Scudder, William Sargeant, John Phinney, sr., John Phinney, jr., Jabez and Jedediah Lumbard, Benjamin Lumbard, Caleb Lumbard, Widow Lothrop, Widow Lumbard, John Otis, Robert Parker, Joshua Lumbard, sr., Melt. Lothrop, Joseph Lothrop, Ralph Jones, John Jenkins, John Huckins, John Howland, John Hinckley, Barnabas Lothrop, Widow Lewis, Thomas Lewis, John Lewis, James Lewis, Edward Lewis, Shubael Dimock, Nathaniel Fitzrandal, John Fuller, Matthew Fuller, Samuel Fuller, sr., Samuel Fuller, jr., Samuel Fuller, son of Matthew, John and Nathaniel Goodspeed, Samuel Allyn, Nathaniel Bacon, jr., Peter Blossom, John Chipman, James Claghorn, James Cobb, Job Crocker, Josiah Crocker, Robert Davis, Thomas Dexter, William Dexter, William Troop, Thomas Walley, sr., John Gorham, Joseph Hallett, Bart. Hamblin, James Hamblin, sr., and James Hamblin, jr.

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    During these years the laws were rigidly enforced, as will appear from the entry in the record of 16??, that the aged widow, Annable, was fined one pound for selling beer without permission. The strict, law-abiding principle of the people is more marked when it is known that at this time men were permitted to sell cider and liquors by wholesale and retail.

    In 1693 the whole commons' meadows that had been left were divided among those who had a right. This year it was found that the town had 164 freemen and voters. In 1696 the great marshes were divided and parceled out by lot. The town was divided in 1700 into two training districts—the dividing line began "at Dea. Crocker's, and, as the way goeth, up to the head of Skonkenet river, and as the river runneth, into the South Sea." The eastern part was to be the 1st Foot, under Captain Gorham, and the western the 2d, under Captain Otis.

    In 1733 the line between Yarmouth and Barnstable was again adjusted, and the selectmen took measures to present the disorderly conduct of Indians, negroes and other persons at night. Wild cats molested the good people too, for the same year two pounds per head was offered as a bounty. In 1738 the town ordered Mr. Marston to open a passage through his mill clam for alewives, and in 1751 Mr. Marston was to have one-fourth part of the herrings taken at his mill brook, he to keep the passage open. The selectmen were greatly exercised in 1757 to provide for the welfare of the town during its visitation by small-pox.

    In 1785 an effort was made, with success, to prevent the cutting of wood on Sandy neck, thinking to protect the meadows from drifting sands. The passage of alewives to and from the ponds was the care of civil authorities in that year, and especially did they legislate to assist the poor fish around and by Macy's mill. In 1786 the town asked that the great bridge be made a county charge, but the inhabitants were very soon after warned to turn out for work on it. In 1789 the same wolf, that was worthy of mention in the Sandwich town records, was declared an outlaw, and a reward was offered for the public display of his head here in Barnstable; the selectmen would give fifty pounds if it could be shown by a Barnstable man, and twenty-five pounds if they could see the head and ears of this precious wolf in the hands of some one from any other town.

    The doings of the town, as recorded, related largely to the affairs of war, raising troops and money, through the excitement of the revolutionary war and that of 1812-15. The proprietors' meetings about their lands long ago had been discontinued. Their last meeting as proprietors was held March 7, 1836, when they empowered Seth Hallett to make two copies of their proceedings, which was clone, and the

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originals are in the office of the register of deeds. These records closed July 8, 1795. The civil duties of the officers of the town down to the breaking out of the war of the rebellion were confined to the interests of roads, schools, the poor and improvements.

    In the years 1861-65 Barnstable nobly did its duty. The number of men sent from the town during the rebellion aggregated 240 for land and sea, exclusive of men engaged in transporting. These particulars are more fully given in a prior chapter.

    The old records having been lost, the first officers of the town may be imperfectly listed; but the following names, dates, and years of service, if more than one, have been compared and made as correct as possible. While the towns were entitled to deputies to the general court, and while represented as towns, we give the list here. Since 1857, when districts were formed, the list of representatives will be found in Chapter V. In December, 1639, Joseph Hull and Thomas Dimmock were sent to general court; Hull went for one year and Dimmock eight. Beginning in 1640, Anthony Amiable went for twelve different years; in 1641, William Thomas; 1642. John Cooper,. 2; 1643, Henry Rowley, and Henry Bourne, 2; 1644, Henry Cobb, 9; 1645, Isaac Robinson, 2; 1646, Thomas Hinckley, 6; 1652, Nathaniel Bacon, 13; 1656, John Smith, 3; 1663, John Chipman, 7; 1666, Joseph Lothrop, 15; 1669, Thomas Huckins, 9; 1670, William Crocker, 3; 1672, John Thompson, 2; 1675, Barnabas Lothrop, 7; 1682, Samuel Allyn, 3; 1685, Shubael Dimock, 3; 1689, John Gorham, 3; 1692, John Gorham, 3, and John Otis, 8; 1695, John Green; 1700, Thomas Hinckley; 1701, John Bacon, 2; 1704, Samuel Hinckley, 2; 1705, James Hamblin; 1707, Samuel Chipman, 3; 1711, Joseph Lothrop, 3; 1712, Daniel Parker, 4; 1718, Shubael Gorham, 20; 1737, John Russell, 2; 1741, Sylvanus Bourne, 2; 1743, Robert Davis, 2; 1745, James Otis, 20; 1757, Edward Bacon, 8; 1763, Cornelius Crocker, 2; 1765, Nymphas Marston, 6; 1771, David Davis, 4; 1775, Joseph Otis; 1776, Eli Phinney; 1777, Ebenezer Jenkins, 3; 1780, Sturgis Gorham, 4; 1782, Shearj. Bourne, 7; 1783, Samuel Hinckley, 2; 1786, Lot Nye, 3; 1790, Samuel Smith, 2, and Eben Crocker, 2; 1798, David Scudder; 1802, Isaiah L. Green; 1803, Jonas Whitman, 8; 1804, Richard Lewis, 4; 1807, Eben Lothrop, 2; 1809, Jabez Howland, 7, and Joseph Blish, 2; 1810, Job C. Davis, 2; 1811, Nehemiah Lovell, and Naler Crocker, 8; 1812. Lemuel Shaw, Nathaniel Jenkins, 3, and William Lewis, 12; 1821, Nymphas Marston, 3; 1824, Benjamin Hallett, 2; 1830, David Hinckley, 8, and Charles Marston, 4; 1831, Henry Crocker, 6; 1833, Zenas Weeks, 5; 1834, Nathaniel Hinckley, 8; 1837, William A. Lewis, and Samuel Pitcher, 2; 1838, Seth Goodspeed; 1839, Daniel Bassett, 2, and Thomas B. Lewis, 5; 1843, Josiah Hinckley, 4, and Job Handy, 2; 1845, Charles C. Bearse, 2; 1847, Samuel A. Wiley, 2; 1853, Edwin Baxter; 1855, R. S. Pope, and Asa E. Lovell, 2; 1856, John A. Baxter, and Nathan Crocker, 2.

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    The records of the election of selectmen for the first seventy-five years are also imperfect. As far as possible the names of these will be given. It is known those mentioned in the list served, and some of them for several 3-ears. Nathaniel Bacon, Tristram Hull, John Chipman, John Thompson, William Crocker, Joseph Lothrop, Thomas Huckins, John Gorham, Barns. Lothrop, James Lewis, Samuel Allyn, John Howland, Shubael Dimock. From 1714more reliable data is found, and the date of election and time of service can be given. That year John Lewis was elected and served 2 years;' also Joseph Lothrop who served 3; John Baker, 7; and Joseph Smith, IS; 1716, John Thacher, 8; 1719, George Lewis, 8, and David Loring, 10; 1720, Shubael Gorham, 12, and Joseph Hinckley, 13; 1723, Joseph Crocker, 6: 1727, Sam'l Chipman, 3; 1730, Benj. Crocker, 3; 1732, Col. Gorham, 1; 1783, David Crocker, 19: 1735, John Thacher, 4; 1738, Robert Davis, 14; 1740, John Gorham, 6; 1745, James Otis, 14; 1751, Matthias Smith, 2; 1752, Silvs. Bourne, 3, Joseph Blish. 3, and Dan'l Davis, 25; 1756. Edw. Bacon, 12, and Isaac Hinckley, 5; 1762, Nymphas Marston, 11; 1765, Eli Phinney, 6, and Matthias Fuller, 3; 1772, Joseph Otis, 0; 1776, Eben. Jenkins, 3; 1779, Jona. Crocker, 5, and Thos. Crocker, 2; 1781, Eleazer Scudder, 1; 1782, Lot Nye, 3; 1783, Joseph Davis, 1: 1784, Eben. Bacon, 19; 1785, David Parker, 6, and Joseph Smith, 10; 1791, Joseph Crocker, 10: 1795, David Scudder, 4; 1798, Natli'l Lewis, 3, and Richard Lewis, 29; 1801, Nath'l Jenkins, 7; 1805, John Davis, 8, and Jno. Crocker, 2: 1807, Jno. Bodfish, 10; 1813, Isaac Hodges, 2; 1815, Naler Crocker, 13; 1820, Lemuel Nye, 8; 1827, Asa Hinckley, 1; 1828, James Marchant. 3, and Chas. Marston, 8; 1829, James Smith, 2; 1831, Josiah Hinckley, 4, and Zach's Hamblen, 2; 1833, Eben. Bacon, 10, and Stephen C. Nye, 4; 1836, Henry Crocker, 2, Nath'l Hinckley, 10, and Samuel Pitcher, 2; 1838, Daniel Bassett, 10, and Lothrop Davis, 9; 1840, Zenas Weeks, 1, and James Lewis, 2; 1842, Seth Hallet, 2; 1843, Thos. B. Lewis, 2; 1845, Thos. Stetson, 3; 1848, Chas. C. Bearse, 24; 1849, Fred. Scudder, 7; 1850, Chas. Lewis, 2; 1851, Robinson Weeks. 1; 1856, Luther Hinckley, 1; 1857, Nath'l Hinckley, 2, and Joseph R. Hall, 13; Ebenezer Bacon, 9; 1866, Fred'k Scudder, 1; 1869, Nathan Crocker. 3; Samuel Snow, 6; 1871, Andrew Lovell, until his resignation January. 1890; 1872, Levi L. Goodspeed, 7; 1876, Zenas E. Crowell, 8; 1878, Nathan Edson, 7, Abel D. Makepeace, 4, and Charles C. Crocker; 1888, Eben B. Crocker. The board in 1890 is the last two named, and Cyrenus A. Lovell.

    The following served as town clerks from the formation of the town, but no dates can be accurately given until about 1772. The first was Thomas Hinckley for many years, succeeded by Joseph Lothrop, Samuel Allyn, John Otis, Nathaniel Otis, David Crocker, Isaac Hinckley, Robert Davis, Daniel Davis, Edward Bacon, Samuel Jenkins; and then Josiah Crocker served 9 years. In 1780 he was succeeded by

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Eben Bacon for 25 years; in 1805, Jabez Howland,- 8; 1812, Nalor Crocker, 11; 1824, James N. Rowland, 2; 1826, Josiah Hinckley, 11; 1837, Calvin Stetson, 6; 1843, Frederick Parker, 2; 1844, Ferdinand G. Kelley, served until 1885—the longest term on the records; and he was succeeded by Charles F. Parker, who is still in office.

    Prior to 1812 the office of treasurer was distinct from that of clerk, and was filled in succession by Eben Lewis, John Otis, Robert Davis, Isaac Hinckley, Daniel Davis, Joseph Otis, Jonathan Crocker, Thomas Crocker, and Jabez Howland. From this treasurer until the present time the offices of clerk and treasurer have been filled by the same person.

    Churches.—In 1616 Rev. Henry Jacobs organized a Congregational church at Southwark, London, of which John Lothrop became pastor. In 1634 about thirty of this church, with Mr. Lothrop, immigrated to this continent, locating in the wilderness of Scituate, where they were joined by thirteen of the church who had previously arrived. October 31, 1639, Mr. Lothrop, with the majority of the Scituate church, as already appears, came to Barnstable. A few days after the arrival a fast was held "to implore the grace of God to settle us here in church estate, and to unite us together in holy walking, and to make us faithful in keeping covenant with God and one another." That the church here progressed and worked harmoniously is evinced by Mr. Lothrop's diary, which says: "April 15, 1640, a day of fasting and prayer on occasion of the investing of Br. Mayo with the office of teaching elder, upon whom myself, Mr. Hull and Br. Cobb lay our hands; and for the Lord to find out a place for meeting, and that we may agree in it." Tradition has it that the first meetings held in Barnstable were on and around a large rock westerly of Coggin's pond, on the north side of the county road. This rock has ruthlessly been removed, but a portion of it has been permanently placed at the southeast corner of the premises of Edward Scudder, in the north line of the highway.

    The lapse of 250 years renders tradition dim, and even the small amount of records extant cannot definitely give the date of the building of the  first meeting house or where it stood. It is clear that none had been built in March, 1644, for Mr. Lothrop said in his diary, March 24th, "our meeting being held at the end of Mr. Burseley's house." But by the same diary it appears that "May, 1646, met in our new meeting house." Where this first meeting house was located is in doubt. There are those who say it was near the present Baptist church in the village of Barnstable, but all there is in the records to substantiate the tradition is that Mr. Lothrop, the pastor, was given land near that meeting house and he first lived nearly opposite the present court house. Mr. Palfrey said the first was one-fourth of a

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mile west of the present East Parish church, on the west side of the old burying ground. Mr. Otis says, "The first meeting house stood in the ancient graveyard on the opposite of the road from Mr. Hull's house." It was undoubtedly near the old burying ground by the present Methodist Episcopal church.

    Mr. Lothrop died November 8, 1653. and tradition says it was in the house now occupied by the Sturgis Library. William Sargeant filled the pulpit for years afterward and there arose some disquiet in the church. In 1662 a virtual separation of a portion of the members occurred, the church refusing fellowship with them.

    Rev. Thomas Walley was the recognized minister in 1663 and continued fifteen years. In 1681 a new meeting house was erected at a cost of £100, and is said to have stood on the top of the hill on the John Phinney lot, west of the pond; and this building was used until, the Second parish church was erected by the division of the original parish.

    In 1683 Rev. Jonathan Russell was ordained minister. He died in 1711, and was succeeded in 1712 by his son, Jonathan Russell, jr. The organization, at this time, of a second parish was urged, and as strongly opposed, but in 1716 a sufficient number of persons, with means, commenced building a new meeting house at the east end of Cobb's hill,. without waiting for the legal incorporation of a separate parish. This edifice was used fully one hundred years afterward on the site of the present Congregational church opposite the custom house in the village of Barnstable; but not until 1717 was the division in the parish effected, and the East parish erected; and then not until after much discussion and great deliberation. The line of separation between the East and West parishes was designated as running "from a little east of Joseph Crocker's place south to Oyster river," now generally called Bump's river, where the division line is substantially now.

    The West parish erected a new meeting house in 1718, in which the first service was held on Thanksgiving day, 1719. This is substantially the same church building now at West Barnstable in use by the West or First parish. Mr. Russell, the minister in charge at the time of the division, chose to remain with the West parish. No renewal of organization was needed, nor installation of pastor who carried the-records with him; and this was called the First church.

    Upon the facts already stated from records and upon others not so fully authenticated that the majority remained members of the West parish, rests the statement that it is the oldest Congregational society in New or Old England.

    After a pastorate of forty-seven years Mr. Russell died in 1759, and was succeeded by Rev. Oakes Shaw, who died in 1807. This West parish, after the new church was erected, had some differences of

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opinion in regard to the manner of worship, and this was during Mr. Russell's pastorate. Some wished the music conducted in a way that was not conducive to the harmony of others, and June 12. 1726, the civil officers were called upon "to detect and bear testimony against such iniquity." But it was voted to sing the regular, or new way, till the church order otherwise."

    In 1807 Rev. Enoch Pratt was called to the pastorate. At his own request, after twenty-seven years, he was dismissed, and was succeeded by Rev. Alfred Greenwood in 1836. In 1840 Rev. Thomas Riggs was installed pastor, and he was succeeded in 1843 by Rev. Alonzo Hayes. Rev. Ebenezer Chase supplied for 1851. In 1852 Rev. Hiram Carleton became stated supply, continuing till 1861.

    In 1853 the church building was repaired and renewed, retaining the body of the old one. The modern windows were substituted, a new covering was put on. and twenty feet was partitioned from the main building, forming suitable vestry and assembly rooms. The church had long had a bell—the gift of Colonel James Otis—said to be the first church bell in the county.

    In 1863 Rev. Henry A. Goodhue became the pastor and remained for several years. Rev. Robert Samuel served part of 1883-84 as supply, and then as pastor until March, 1886. After an interim of a few weeks the pulpit was filled by occasional supplies—Reverends King, Clark, Lord, Wheeler, Parker and Borchers. Rev. J. K. Aldrich, of Hyannis, supplied in 1889.

    The East parish purchased the church edifice on Cobb's hill of the individuals who had in 1717 erected it, and preaching was held for a few years without settling a minister. Messrs. Welstead, Wigglesworth, Cotton, Waldron, Ward, Gold, Perkins. Geo, Smith, Hillhouse, Russell, Leonard and others officiated, and not until May 12,1725, was Rev. Joseph Green ordained the settled pastor of the parish, and the same day the church organization was effected with sixty-four members as the regular, independent, Congregational church. Rev. Joseph Green died October 4, 1770, and was succeeded in 1771 by Rev. Timothy Hilliard, who was allowed to withdraw from the pastorate in 1783. November 12th, the same year, Rev. John Mellen was ordained the successor.

    In 1801 Rev. Jotham Waterman was chosen pastor, and dismissed July 13, 1815. Rev. Oliver Hayward was ordained to succeed him in October, the same year, and was dismissed by his own request in 1818. Rev. Edward Q. Sewal was ordained as pastor December 22, 1819, and remained three years, being succeeded October 6, 1824, by Rev. Henry Hersey, who in turn was succeeded in 1837 by Rev. George W. Woodward for two years. The pulpit was temporarily supplied for several years until October 1, 1849, which terminated the period of Rev. Caz-

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neau Palfrey's labors. Rev. J. N. Bellows, brother of Rev. Henry W. Bellows, of New York, preached from March, 1849, to 1852, and was succeeded in June, 1853, by Rev. T. Daggett for six years. Rev. J. B. Willard came in March, 1860, for two years, succeeded by Thomas Weston in 1863, who remained five years. Henry F. Edes was settled in April, 1869. for six years, then Rev. W. H. Mullett filled the pulpit from March, 1876, to March. 1877. After one year Rev. R. P. E. Thacher was settled three years, and since 1881 the parish has had no settled minister. The interim has been filled by several, and Rev. Frederick Hinckley, a native of Barnstable village, supplied in 1889. The religious society occupying the East parish church is the Unitarian Society of Barnstable.

    The Centreville church was organized August 6, 1816. by the name of South Congregational in Barnstable. That year Ebenezer Coleman, James Hathaway, Ebenezer Case. Levi Kelley, Solomon Phinney, Benjamin Hathaway, Job Childs, James Crosby, Lewis Crosby, Paul Phinney and Ebenezer Bearse were dismissed from the East Parish to form this society. The church building was soon after erected, in the extreme eastern portion of Centreville. on what is known as Phinney's lane, and was moved to its present site in 1826. In 1848 the old building was taken clown and sold in parcels and pieces, and the present one erected. A town clock was placed in its tower about 1856. Rev. Josiah Sturtevant commenced his pastorate in 1819, continuing five years, and was succeeded by Rev. William Harlow. who was installed in 1827. He was dismissed after three years, and Hazael Lucas came in 1831. William Merchant was ordained in 1885, and remained four years. He was succeeded by Elisha Bacon in 1840. In May of the same year the society was reorganized and called The Congregational Church of Christ in Centreville. Mr. Bacon was retained as pastor for several years. The society was successively supplied by Messrs. Gilpin, Edward Chamberlain, George Ford and E. Burgess—the latter for nearly three years. William H. Bessom came to preach in 1860, remained until 1863, and was succeeded by Rev. E. P. Stone in 1864, who served until 1866. Rev. Newton I. Jones served, and was succeeded by Isaiah P. Smith in 1877, for two years. Rufus Emerson came in 1880; Rev. Mr. Avers in 1883; Rev. Mr. Scott for 1884: Mr. William Leonard for the years 1885-87 inclusive; and April 1, 1888, Rev. George H. Pratt became the pastor. This church has been, and still is, an important factor in the list. It was the gathering place for church-going people of Osterville before they organized a church of their own. The first Sunday school was early organized by "Aunt Annah" Lewis, aunt of William Thacher Lewis, of Falmouth. She died about 1880, after a life of over fourscore years of usefulness.

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    Before the organization of this church, the people of Centreville were compelled to go to the East Parish church at Barnstable village. It is an interesting fact, that in those early days the females "would walk the entire distance carrying their best shoes and stockings in their hands until they arrived at the large rock, situated about one mile south of Barnstable village, by the roadside, and there change, leaving the old pairs behind the rock till their return. The rock is still by the roadside, but is dumb concerning the incidents of one hundred years ago.

    The Baptist church of Hyannis is the parent society of many others in its vicinity, the articles of faith with its organization bearing date June 20, 1772. The deed of the lot on which stands the church building at Hyannis is dated 1788. The society worshipped here in a school house or small building until 1825. when a church was erected. The present substantial edifice was erected during the pastorate of Rev. Andrew Pollard about 1845-6. The records of the society are deficient between the years 1831 and 1853, during which time the names of the pastors only can be given. The pastors and years of installation are: Enoch Eldridge, 1788; Shubael Lovell, 1795; John Peak (called Father Peak), 1802, and again in 1819; Barnabas Bates. 1808; Simeon Coombs, 1818; Joseph Ballard, jr.. 1829; Lemuel Porter, 1830; Edward N. Harris, 1831; William B. Jacobs, Andrew Pollard and D. C. Haynes in the interim; Samuel J. Bronson, 1853; W. H. Evans, 1867; W. P. Elsdon, 1873; George W. Fuller, 1880; and John A. Shaw, April 23, 1889.

    Second Baptist Church, Osterville.—On the third of January, 1835, twenty-five members of the First Baptist church, Hyannis, withdrew for the purpose of forming a society at Osterville. This number included twelve men: Benjamin Hallett, George, Robert, Ellis and James Lovell, Daniel Childs and Benjamin Small of Cotuit; William Hinckley of Barnstable village; John Cammett, William Blount and Jonathan Kelley of Centreville, and Benjamin Jones of Marston's Hills. Hansard Hallett was also one of the original members. Thirteen ladies were also included: Clarissa, Sarah H., Jerusha and Lydia G. Lovell, Olive L. Allen, Lydia Hallett, Eliza Blount, Jemima Bearse, Hannah Robbins, Polly Small, Abigail Childs, Rebecca Hinckley and Pamelia Thomas. The same day at a meeting, at the residence of George Lovell, arrangements were perfected for a church organization, and March 4, 1835, the council at the house of James Lovell in Osterville, organized the present society, electing Benjamin Hallett and Robert Lovell as its first deacons and George Lovell as clerk. Joseph Amos, the blind preacher, of Mashpee, assisted in this organization, and they adjourned to the public hall for religious service.

    Sunday services were held at stated times in the East school house

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until the erection of the present church edifice in 1837, which was dedicated January 4, 1838. A Sunday school was also organized in January, 1838. The first pastor, Flavil Shurtlif, came October 10,1835, succeeded by Robert B. Dickey, October 2, 1836. "William L. Dennis became settled as pastor December 24. 1837. succeeded by Ira Leland in January, 1840, and who was settled in July the same year, remaining until May, 1843. William S. Knapp then preached six months, and others supplied the pulpit until Tubal Wakefield was settled in 1847, who with his son, Leander, officiated until 1852. The society then depended upon supplies for three years. In 1855 Rev. Freeman B. Ashley was settled as pastor: in 1859 he was succeeded by Rev. Robert Harlow until May, 1860. The remainder of the year was supplied and Rev. W. A. Newell came, remaining until July, 1862.

    In 1863 Rev. Allen E. Battelle was settled for two years, succeeded by Rev. Charles L. Thompson in 1865. Pie was succeeded in 1867 by J. K. Metcalf for two years, then by supplies until 1871, when Noah Fullerton was called and was retained three years. Rev. James Mun-roe supplied for a year, and Rev. F. E. Cleave came in 1875; Rev. H. M. Dean in 1878 for five months; Rev. P. P. Briggs, January 1, 1879; Rev. E. L. Scott in 1880: D. C. Bixby, 1883; Rev. G. W. Fuller, of Hyannis, supplied from March, 1885, to June, 1886, and was succeeded by F. A. Snow during that summer. Mr, Fuller supplied for the winter and spring following, and Rev. T. J. Ramsdell through the summer. In June, 1888. Rev. Bryant McLellan commenced his labors with the society and was ordained the settled pastor in April, 1889. The church edifice, remodeled and modernized, was rededicated December 15, 1889.-

    The Third Baptist church, Barnstable, is so called because its organization dated October 27, 1842, is subsequent in date to that of the Hyannis and Osterville societies. Its primitive members were: Dea. Samuel Childs, Mrs. Relief Chipman, Ann Allen, Lucy Chi Ids, Lydia Jenkins and Misses Anna D. Allen and Mary A. Smith of the Hyannis church; Misses Jane and Abby Munroe and Mrs. Louisa Brown, of the New Bedford church; Mr. William Hinckley and Mrs. Rebecca Hinckley, of the Osterville church; also Mrs. Caroline J. Crocker, Rebecca Scudder and Mr. W. H. Brown.

    The old court house was remodeled into a pleasant place of worship, which is still occupied. The pastors and time of commencement have been: Richard M. Ely, in September, 1843; William H. Dalrymple, April, 1849; S. G. Sargent, November, 1850; William Reed, October, 1852; W. W. Ashley, January, 1858; T. C. Russell, July, 1858; A. F. Mason, January, 1860; A. L. Farr, November, 1861: J. H. Seaver, November, 1863; J. Bronson, December, 1866; Nathan Chapman, November, 1868; J. H. Tilton, and Miles N. Reed, De-

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cember, 1877: William S. Walker, June, 1878; Mr. Scott. July. 1884; Mr. Hurst for a short time; G. W. Burnham, October. 1887; and L. F. Shepardson for 1889. Dea. Samuel Chipman was deacon from its organization until his death tn 1876. Daniel Davis is now the acting deacon, and Miss A. N. Hinckley is clerk.

    The Methodists of Hyannis, prior to 1850, raised a fund to build a church for their worship, but were so divided in belief that the project was abandoned, and the two factions each erected one. The Protestant Methodists soon ceased public service, and the edifice became a hall—now the dwelling of Nathaniel Sears, the conductor. The Episcopal Methodists also soon discontinued their society, and the church building was sold to the Congregational society, September 16, 1854. This society was organized January 3, 1854, comprising many former Methodists. After the purchase, the edifice was repaired and enlarged for this new society, which is prosperous. In 1865 a front was added, containing a steeple, in which was placed a bell, and in 1878 the chapel by the side of the church building was erected. The pastors have been: J. U. Parsons, the first, three years, succeeded by Charles Morgridge, in 1858; H. A. Lounsbury, in 1865; J. W. Strong, 1870; J. W. Turner, 1873; V. J Hartshorne, 1875; Stephen Smith, 1879; Rev. Mr. Angier, 1881: Charles E. Harwood, to December, 1882; R. J. Mooney, to 1884; J. K. Aldrich, January 1, 1885; Mr. Kavanaugh, 1887; and George W. Osgood, November 6, 1887.

    The Catholic society of Hyannis was organized in 1850, and the most active in its organization and support was William Ormsby. In 1874 a church edifice was erected. Rev. Father William Moran, of Sandwich, was the first pastor, who was succeeded by other pastors from that church—Reverends Bertoldi, Kinnerny, McCabe, Brady and Clinton—once in each month. Father O'Connor, from Harwich, officiated in 1869, and Rev. C. McSweeney, of Woods Holl, is the present pastor.

    The Methodist Episcopal society, Barnstable village, had a church edifice early in this century, which was moved to its present site less than sixty years ago. This building occupied a site to the west and south, and was repaired when removed. Its ministers have been: Benjamin Hazleton in 1818: Isaac Jennison in 1820: E. Taylor and Thomas Smith, in 1821; Lewis Bates, 1823; Bates and J. N. Maffett, 1824; Hezekiah Thacher, 1825; Thacher and C. G. Chase, 1826; Enoch Bradley, 1827; Warren Wilbur, 1828; H. Branson and S. Heath, 1829; Bronson and C. Noble, 1830; F. Upham and J. B. Brown, 1831; A. Holway, 1833; W. Ramsdell and B. M. Walker, 1834; J. Steel and L. R. Bannister, 1835; Steel and H. H. Smith, 1836; E. Otis, 1837; Josiah Litch, 1838; Henry H. Smith, 1839; E. Jackson, 1840; G. W. Stearns, 1842; Stearns and G. W. Winchester, 1843; D. Stebbins, 1844; Edward A. Lyons.

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1845; William Richards. 1846; Henry Mayo, 1847; James M. Worcester, 1848; G. W. Stearns, 1849; Edward B. Hinckley, 1851; James B. Weeks, 1853; Joseph Marsh, 1855; Daniel Webb, 1856; Seth B. Chase, 1862; Caleb S. Sanford, 1867; S. Y. Wallace. 1868; S. W. Coggeshall and N. B. Fisk, 1869; V. W. Mattoon, 1871; Silas Sprowls, 1873; supplies 1875 to 1879; Y. B. Gurney; 1879; C. F. Sharp, 1881; Philo Hawks, still a resident of the place, 1883; H. N. Donnell, 1886; supplies in 1887; E. F. Newell, 1888; and George Bernreuter, 1889.

    Rev. William Black, the honored founder of Methodism in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland, preached the first Methodist sermon ever preached upon Cape Cod. He embarked for Boston from New York in a schooner, which put in at Hyannis, January 20, 1784, and being' detained there, Mr. Black preached six sermons at Barnstable, where a deep religious interest was produced.

    The services of the Protestant Episcopal church were held during the summer of 1889 in the village of Barnstable at stated periods. The society is largely composed of the visitors for the season. Rev. N. H. Chamberlain, of Bourne, officiated the past season.

    The Catholic society held monthly services in Barnstable village during the summer of 1889, the few members being under the care of the Woods Holl priest.

    The Methodist Episcopal Society, Osterville, dates its organization November 30,1847. For some time previous there had been meetings of the people as Methodists, at the hall, and soon after the organization of the society a church edifice was built. It was erected in 1848 and remodeled in 1861. The old members interested at the first were: Oliver Hinckley and wife, Mrs. John Cammett, Benjamin F. Crocker, John F. Blossom, Lot Phinney, Joshua Lumbert, Bartlett Holmes, Daniel Lovell and wife, Mrs. Timothy Parker. Josiah Scudder. Jacob Lovell and J. Lovell. The ministers were: A. M. Osgood and L. W. Barber in 1847; J. B. Hunt, 1848; Mr. Tainter,1849: John Tasker,1850; J. B. Washburn, 1851; B. K. Bosworth, 1852; J. C. Allen, 1853: J. Burleigh Hunt, 1854: J. N. Collier, 1856; J. W. Willett, 1857; E.K.Colby, 1859; H.D.Robinson. 1861; Edward Edson, 1863; E. B. Hinckley, 1865; Edward Anthony, 1866: C. N. Hinckley, 1867; Solomon P. Snow, 1870: Charles H. Ewer, 1872; Mr. Cottle. 1874: J. W. Fitch. 1875; George H. Butler, 1877; E. S. Fletcher, 1878; S. H. Day, 1879; George A. Grant, 1881; W. W. Hall, 1884; Lewis B. Codding, 1885; Mr. Dalrymple came in 1887 and Mr. Newell finished the year; and next Rev. Edward Gurney came.

    The Methodist Episcopal Society, Marston's Mills, was formed quite early and was supplied as one of a circuit. Its church building was first erected at Yarmouth Port early in the present century, and about 1830 was purchased and removed to Marston's Mills. It was repaired

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and remodeled in 1862. Several of the pioneer Methodist ministers preached here, but of them no definite data could be found prior to the coming of Rev. Joseph A. Hunt in 1854. In I860 Benjamin Haines came; and in 1862 Thomas Pratt. Those who succeeded, and the year of their coming, are: John S. Fish, 1864; Charles O. Carter, 1866; Charles E. Walker, 1869; Rev. Mr. Daw, 1872; Mr. Townsend, 1873; Moses Dwight, 1875; John S. Fish a second time in 1877; Philo Hawks, 1880: James R. Cushing, 1882; Rev. A. H. Somes, 1884; and Rev. Edward Gurney, April 1, 1888.

    The Methodist Episcopal Society, Centreville, dates from 1877, its members previously uniting with that at Osterville. It is now a prosperous young society, having had a chapel built for worship by Lucian K. Paine. This and the Barnstable Methodist Episcopal church were one charge in 1889. The ministers have been: George H. Butler, in 1877; Ephraim S. Fletcher, 1878; S. Hamilton Day. 1879: George A. Grant, 1881; W. W. Hall. 1884; Lewis B. Codding, 1885; C. H. Dalrymple. 1887; Elmer F. Newell, 1888; and George Bernreuter, April, 1889.

    Prior to 1846 the inhabitants of Cotuit and Cotuit Port agreed to erect a church in which both communities could assemble; but disagreements arose and the agreement was dissolved. The Cotuit people at once moved in the matter to erect one for themselves, circulating a subscription early in 1846, by which twenty-two shares were disposed of. and upon which as a basis a church was erected. The shares taken did not cover the cost of the building, but the balance was solicited in various ways and places by Rev. Phineas Fish, who was the first pastor, preaching alternately here and at Herring Pond. He began preaching here in 1840. Rev. Mr. Cobb succeeded him, who in turn was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Bacon, but no settled minister was employed until 1883. The ground for the church was given for church purposes by Alvin Crocker, to whom it would revert if not .used as such, and, in order to make the church free and continue its usefulness, the building was sold upon the former stock February 10, 1882, and bid in by Charles L. Baxter for a large list of subscribers, embodying almost the entire community. At a meeting held March 11, 1882, five trustees—John H. Reed, Thomas C. Harlow, Charles L. Baxter, Roland T. Harlow and Nathaniel Hinckley—were chosen to control it. By-laws were adopted April 6, 1882, and it was called the First Church of Cotuit. The church is now free, is public property, and every one who pays one dollar has a vote in its management. There is no religious organization here, but preaching is stipported by subscription. Since 1883 Charles E. Helliwell and A. H. Somes have occupied the desk a portion of the time till 1888, when the committee let the Methodist Episcopal Society of Cotuit Port use the church. In

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April, 1889, Rev. Mr. Patterson was assigned to this church and at Cotuit Port, preaching here in the afternoon. In 1885 Mrs. Mary A. Gifford organized a Sabbath school here, which has been liberally supported in every way by the people of Cotuit and vicinity, retaining her as superintendent.

    In 1846, after the northern section of Cotuit had concluded to erect a church edifice independent of the "Port," as they styled the village, the people of the lower village, which bears the name of Cotuit Port, erected the present substantial edifice, and dedicated it as the Union church. The professed Christians were Baptists, Methodists and Congregationalists, and no one of these societies then felt strong enough to build exclusive of the others. The building was to be occupied by the three societies as equally as possible. The members of these three societies met January 22. 1872. and formed the Cotuit Port Union Religious Society, enlarging and repairing the church building. For a few years supplies filled the pulpit until Mr. Ray, a Congregationalist, came, who pleased all, and was retained twelve years—to 1889. This society, for 1889, elected, as its managing committee, John C. Fish, Irving B. Phinney and Alonzo Phinney; as assessors, Hiram Crocker, Irving B. Phinney and B. W. Dottridge; and as clerk, John R. Sturges.

    In 1879 many of the Union Society, considering it expedient to dissolve the old and organize a new religious society of broader views, adopted, September 26, 1879, the faith and rules of the Independent Christian Church. The annual meetings are held the second "Wednesday in January each year, at which a clerk, treasurer and four pastor's associates—two males and two females—are elected. This is now the active Christian society of the community, but is not to affect the original Union Church organization, which is continued, and of which this is composed. The pastor's associates of the Independent Christian Church, elected January 9, 1889, are: John R. Sturges, Braddock Coleman, Mary Phinney and Edith R. Fisher. The late John M. Handy filled the office of clerk and treasurer from the first.

    The Universalist Society of Hyannis was organized in 1828, by the concentrated means and energy of Samuel Pitcher, Zacheus Hamlin, Freeman Bearse, David Hinckley, William Phinney, of Centreville, and Alexander Baxter. A small church edifice was then erected, and years after a still better one, which was struck by lightning and consumed in 1872. In 1873 the society commenced the present fine edifice upon the same site, dedicating it June 30, 1874. The records of the society were lost in the fire, and prior to 1873 the exactness in names and elates of pastoral service must depend upon tradition. The first pastor was John M. Spear, who officiated for several years, and

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was succeeded by Mr. Bugbee, John Noyes and Rufus S. Pope, the latter officiating over thirty years in the old church and the new. The society was reorganized in 1875, and Moses H. Houghton became its pastor; he was succeeded in 1882 by O. L. Ashenfelter for three years, and the pulpit was supplied by various persons until October 1, 1888, when Frederick Hinckley was settled as pastor, and remained one year.

    Burial Places.—In a town so old many cemeteries would be expected. The first regular burying place mentioned in the records is that near the Methodist Episcopal church, which, with that at West Barnstable, is the oldest. In 1674 it was ordered "that Thos. Huckins lay down three acres of land at the meeting house for the town's use as a burying ground." This is also evidence that the first meeting house was near there. The old grounds of the town are considerably used at the present time, but the newer places of burial are preferred, especially by those who have no relatives in the old. The later ones are more particularly described in the villages where they have been instituted. The whole number of burial places are: Two at the Unitarian church, Barnstable village, and one at the Methodist Episcopal church; one at East Barnstable and one at West Barnstable; one at Marston's Mills; two at Cotuit; two at Osterville: three at Centreville; and four at Hyannis. There are two organized cemetery associations in the town, located in the villages of Centreville and Hyannis.

[images of 2 gravestones]

    The oldest inscriptions in the town are in the so-called Methodist cemetery at Barnstable. Seven of these antedate 1700. Here are the inscriptions on two of the older ones. The cuts are by Gustavus A. Hinckley, whose work as a literary man and antiquarian is noticed by Mr. Swift in chapter XIII.

    This Mrs. Chipman was the daughter of John Howland, the last of the Mayflower Pilgrims.

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    Village of Barnstable.—Like some other villages of the county, the settlement of this is contemporaneous with that of the town, the first settlement of the plantation being the nucleus of the present village. The names of the first pioneers have been given for the town, and we will now endeavor to place them in their first residences in the village. In 1640, when their first primitive dwellings had been erected, Rev. John Lothrop's was where the present hotel of Mr. Eldridge stands, nearly opposite the court house: Henry Rowley near Mr. Lothrop's; Isaac Wells near where the court house stands: George Lewis, sr.. near the site of the Ainsworth house: Edward Fitzrandal on the corner by the Hyannis road: Henry Cobb near the present Unitarian church, and the hill was named Cobb's hill from this fact: Richard Foxwell near the present Agricultural Hall: Bernard Lumbert, further east, near the old mill; and Nathaniel Bacon, John Smith, Roger Goodspeed, Thomas Huckins, John Scudder, Samuel Mayo and Thomas Dimock were also in the eastern part of the present village, east of John Lothrop's. Around Coggin's pond were settled Henry Bourne. Thomas Hinckley, Henry Coggin, Laurence Litchfield, James Hamblin and William Tilley. Between Coggin's pond and the present court house were Isaac Robinson, James Cudworth. Samuel Jackson, Thomas Allyn. John Mayo, John Caseley, Robert Linnell, William Caseley, Thomas Lothrop and Thomas Lumbert. Several, including John Bursley, settled west of Coggin's pond, the settlement, like the present village, being scattered along for a space of three miles. The center of the village then was a little east of Coggin's pond.

    Many of these first houses were made of timber and lumber brought from the saw mill at Scituate, the distance by water being short and transportation by boats easy. The house in which Governor Hinckley lived and died was just east of Marcus M. Nye's store, on the north side of the county road, near the head of  "Calf Pasture lane." The governor's former house was on the opposite side of the county road, and here, under a stone wall, is the well which he used. His dust rests under a suitable slab, inscribed with record of his virtues, in the Methodist burying ground east of where he lived. Stone houses were early built in the western part of the then village or community, and houses with the first story of stone were very common..

    The so-called Scudder lane of later years was "Calf Pasture lane" in the early clays of the village, and led to common lands held at that time by the proprietors, and which are known to this day as the calf pasture lands. It is in tradition that the first comers to this town and village first settled at this pasture land, and the next year moved, back from the water. The lane was opened prior to the laying out of the county road in 1686. Later it was the outlet to the harbor for fishing, and early in the present century Nelson and Daniel

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Scudder built a wharf on the harbor communicating with the lane, and from it several fishing vessels were sent out in connection with others of a fleet of forty that were made up from the rendezvous wharf and Cobb & Smith's wharf. For several years this fleet went and came regularly, and a lucrative business in mackerel fishing was carried on. Rendezvous lane is the street that runs northerly from the present Baptist church. The other wharves were located on the present "Poverty lane" that runs to the harbor from near Masonic Hall.

    Among the early industries here was that of salt making. Nathaniel Gorham boiled sea water and made salt, on Sandy neck, during the revolutionary war. Many of the present residents of Barnstable village remember when the "Common field "—the marsh in the rear of the Unitarian church—was a field of salt works. Loring Crocker, grandfather of Alfred Crocker, was the pioneer in this industry on the common field. In 1804 he bought of Isaac Bacon several acres of land with the right to the salt water and the privilege of placing pumps. He afterward, in 1832, bought sixteen hundred running feet of Samuel Whitman, who had succeeded Lothrop Tucker; then east of this he purchased in 1836, works of Mrs. Sturgis; and he bought Asa Young's works, so that when Loring Crocker died, in the fall of 1843. he was the owner of seventeen thousand running feet of vats, most of which were on the Common field. These vats were estimated to cost one dollar per running foot. Mr. Crocker obtained his lumber from Maine, and vats could be built cheaper then than now. It is said that six thousand bushels in a vear was a good vield to Mr. Crocker. After his death his sons Nathan and Loring conducted the works up to 1856, when Loring. father of Alfred Crocker, purchased them and made the last salt in 1872. The old wind mill for salt grinding, now to be seen across the bridge, was erected by the Crockers. Glauber salts was one of the products until it became too cheap to be remunerative. This business, with that of Cobb & Smith at the wharf, made that part of the village at that time an important business center.

    Leonard Hopkins in 1832 bought some salt works here and in 1851 sold them to Alvan Howes, who was a successful manufacturer; in 1867 Truman D. Eldredge became the owner, discontinuing the works about 1870. Nathaniel Gorham, 2cl, began salt making about 1812 by the old mill on the creek: later he removed the works to the shore north of the house in which his daughter, Mrs. Ann Fish, lives. Amos Otis was making salt in 1812 in the works north of William Dixon's, and in nearly every available spot around the harbor north of the village, salt works were erected, but were generally discontinued about the middle of the century.

    Other industries commenced here early. As soon as the town was incorporated in 1639, the proprietors gave Thomas Lumbert permis-

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sion ''to keep victualling, or an Ordinary for the entertainment of strangers." Of course "to draw wines" was the main business of the tavern in those clays. He was located somewhere near the old burying place; and Barnabas Lothrop had a similar permission for an ordinary in 1677, in the eastern part of the village. West of Coggin's pond John Crocker had a tavern prior to 1669. The old court house, standing where the Baptist church is. gave occasion for the erection of taverns near it. Prior to 1776 Cornelius Crocker, jr., opened a tavern near that court house, and which his widow continued many years. The ancient tavern building stood on the spot now owned by Admiral Radford. Opposite the same old court house, on the south side of Main street, in 1776, stood the tavern of Otis Loring. This was continued by Walter Chipman down to the recollection of the oldest living inhabitants, and has since been taken down. Just east of Loring's tavern, with a blacksmith's shop between, was also, in 1776, the "Aunt Lydia's tavern." Lydia, daughter of Cornelius Crocker, sr., married Captain Sturgis, whom she survived more than sixty-two years, continuing the tavern many years under that title. Her daughter, Sally, married Daniel Crocker, who ran the tavern until his death, in 1811, and it was continued by his widow as the "Sally Crocker tavern " until 1837. This building, opposite the Sturgis Library, is now the residence of Mrs. Lydia Scudder.

    In 1794 Ezekiel Crocker married Temperance Phinney, and opened a tavern in the house where now stands the residence of Joseph M. Day. A tavern was also kept before those last mentioned, on the Bacon lot, between the Unitarian church and Agricultural Hall; it was kept by Nathaniel Bacon, 3d, prior to his death in 1738. Dea. Samuel Chipman, who lived on the corner of Alain street and the Hyannis road, kept a tavern prior to 1700. He was a deacon of the church and retailed spirituous liquors—a combination that seemed consistent in those days. His son Samuel, also a deacon, continued the famous " Chipman tavern " until about the middle of last century. While the present court house was being erected in 1827. Eben and Watterman Elclridge modeled their homestead into the Globe Hotel, and since then it has been kept as a public house.

    As early as taverns and places "to draw wines" existed in this village, the primitive store, with its rum, molasses and other staples, was also a contingent necessity. The variety of goods increased with the desires and growth of the village and surrounding town. Sturgis Gorham, Esq., flourished as the merchant prince of the Cape between 1760 and 1790. He carried on an extensive coasting and West India trade. Peter Cotelle started a regular grocery store about 1700, just east of Coggin's pond. The residents, whose wants were few. manufactured their own material for clothing in those davs. Soon after

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1758 Mrs. Abigail Freeman, daughter of Thomas Davis, opened a grocery store in the house where stands the present residence of Joseph M. Day. In revolutionary days she had trouble, because she would not deliver up her stock of tea to the vigilance committee. A later store was kept on the corner of "Calf Pasture lane." Daniel Scudder then lived there, and prior to the civil war the business was carried on by Nelson and, Daniel, in connection with their fishery.

    Another old business place is the Bacon corner. It was early occupied by Eben Bacon, merchant, succeeded by a Mr. Davis, from Falmouth, Nye & Scudder, Samuel Nye, Hallet & Bursley, and Hal-let & Whelden, they being succeeded in 1873 by James Knowles & Co. In 1878, after the death of Mr. Knowles, the junior partner, E. S. Phinney, and A. F. Edson, as Phinney & Edson, took the business, carrying it on successfully for five years, when, February 1, 1883, David Davis and F. B. Easterbrook began as Davis & Easterbrook, and continued until 1889, when David Davis succeeded to the business. Phinney & Edson, in the winter of 1882-3, removed their general store to that formerly occupied by Conant & Edson, who had been in business for a few years; that firm had been succeeded by Mr. Conant, from whom the property went into the hands of the Barnstable Savings Bank. In September, 1880, E. S. Phinney and Albert F. Edson purchased the property, which they now occupy in their general business.

    Of the stores between Scudder's lane and the present ones, one was kept by Frederick Lewis prior to 1858, near where Gustavus A. Hinckley resides; and in 1858 R. M. Waitt opened one near the Methodist Episcopal church, which in 1861 he discontinued, and removed the building to his present residence for a carriage house.

    Eben Smith, sr., and E. T. Cobb had a wharf and a general trade in merchandise, near the bridge leading to the Common fields. Their business was important to the village, and prior to 1850 was one of those that so largely built up the commercial standing of Barnstable in those days. This firm in 1850 added coal to their list of merchandise, being the first dealers. After the death of Mr. Cobb, Mr. Smith carried it on until his death, leaving the business to his son, Eben, who removed the yard to the depot. M. N. Harris, for a few years a partner with Eben Smith in the coal trade, has a coal yard in the village.

    Another industry carried on prior to the coming of the railroad, was running packets from this place to Boston. There were three then, and a lucrative business was carried on. Goods were received here for the south side, and the village presented a much more lively appearance than at present. The wharves and store-houses of fifty years ago are marked by mounds and decayed timbers, and the one fish-house is the only sign of life where once was a busy market.

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    The societies, political, religious and social, usual to villages like this, have been instituted and have served their purposes. A peace society of sixty members, organized in 1827, was continued for years. In 1828 the first regular temperance organization was effected, and much good resulted. The Masonic fraternity flourished here the first half of this centurv and its meetings in 1854 were changed to Hvan-nis. A lodge of Odd Fellows was organized in 1849, which was sustained for twenty-five years. They leased Masonic Hall until 1855, when it was purchased of Fraternal Lodge. A. F. & A. M., which had built a hall at Hyannis. On the sixth of October, 1865, another Masonic Lodge held its first meeting here under a dispensation from the Grand Lodge of the state. They leased the hall of the Odd Fellows until its purchase March 3,1871. This second lodge assumed the name of James Otis Lodge, A. F. & A. M.. and after one year's work under dispensation, held its first meeting under a charter. October 21, 1866. Its first elective officers were: George Marston, M.; Elijah Lewis, S. W.; Elisha Jenkins, J. W.; Oliver M. Hinckley, sec; and Thomas Harris, treas. Its masters have been: George Marston, 1866-69; Elijah Lewis, 1870; Ansel D. Lothrop. 1871; Russell Matthews, 1872-5; Freeman IF Lothrop, 1876-9; Charles Thacher. 2d, 1880-1; Elijah L. Loring, 1882; James B. Cook. 1883-6: Frank H. Hinckley, 1887; Thomas C. Day, 1888-9, with Frederick C. Swift. S. W.; James D. Baxter, J. W.: Freeman H. Lothrop, treas.: and Russell Matthews, sec, for 1889. This society now numbers fifty-three members.

    The Sturgis library of Barnstable was instituted by the liberality and philanthrophy of William Sturgis, a former resident, who bequeathed funds prior to his death in 1863. By his will Samuel Hooper, Lemuel Shaw and Edward W. Hooper were constituted trustees, who informed the selectmen of the town by letter dated July 1, 1868, that Mr. Sturgis had conveyed to the town the estate in Barnstable formerly belonging to his father, also $15,000 for the establishment and maintenance of a free library for the use of the inhabitants of Barnstable; that they as trustees had made extensive alterations in the house thus conveyed and had placed in the building thirteen hundred volumes, and adopted such rules for the government of the library as they deemed proper; that they had chosen Rev. Thomas Weston, librarian; and that the collection of books was now ready for use. The trustees also announced to the selectmen that the income of the trust fund, then invested in U. S. bonds of 1881, would be devoted to the necessary annual expense of the library.

    Samuel Hooper died and was succeeded by his daughter, Mrs. T. R. Lothrop; and Lemuel Shaw was succeeded by J. O. Shaw, his nephew. The second librarian was Mrs. Henry Freeman, assisted by Miss L. S. Loring, who is the present librarian. In 1871 the sum of

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$883 was given in aid of the enterprise by several gentlemen who had prior to 1863 planned a public library. Gustavus A. Hinckley prepared, January 1, 1877, the first and only catalogue of its books, then 6,161 volumes; in 1889 there were 11,083. The interest on the fund is sufficient for its current expenses, and the purchase of new books annually.

    In the latter part of last century a social library was kept here for a time by Dr. Richard Bourne, at his house where the post office was, and his daughter, Abigail, waited on the villagers to books.

    Dr. Richard Bourne, the first postmaster, was appointed March 20, 1793. The mail at first was received weekly, then semi-weekly, but its transportation was paid by private subscription, and not until it was tri weekly did the government assume to assist in supplying the Barnstable office, which was near Jail street. Dr. Bourne was succeeded in the office by Matthew Cobb. December 17.1817. It is a matter of history that great injustice was heaped upon the worthy Doctor Bourne by the government. He was called a defaulter, and his last days were clouded by the imputation. Much distress was occasioned by the collection of the alleged debt from his estate. The error was discovered and full amends were received by his only child after his death, which occurred in 1826. Matthew Cobb had the office near where Mr. Sturgis lives, opposite Phinney & Edson's store, for several years, and was succeeded May 1, 1837, by William H. Brown, who moved it to a building on the corner just west of Alfred Crocker's. He in turn was followed in February, 1842, by Richard Ainsworth, who moved the office to a building on the vacant lot opposite Miss Hinckley's millinery store. The office at the expiration of Mr. Ainsworth's term was variously filled by David Bursley, appointed January 22. 1851, then by Calvin Stetson, Elijah Lewis, and Elisha Jenkins up to 1866. James Clagg was appointed in 1866 and served for fourteen years, being succeeded by Alfred Crocker in 1880. He was succeeded in 1885 by O. W. Hinckley.

    The Old Colony Railroad company has had but two agents at its station here, the present one. John A. Lewis, having grown gray in the position. After the establishment of a station in 1854, Joseph Bursley acted as agent a few years. The depot building, with its contents, was burned during a thunder storm in June, 1889, and at once rebuilt.

    Among the institutions well remembered was the savings bank established in 1831, of which Henry Crocker was the first president, succeeded by Eben Bacon, and he by Josiah Hinckley. John Munroe was the treasurer for forty years, investing over three million dollars in the time. Daniel Scudder was the treasurer for two years, when the affairs of the bank were closed. The business was done for many

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years in a building just west of Mr. Munroe's. until the company took possession, in 1860, of its new office, the building next west of the Globe Hotel.

    The public buildings of the county, including the Agricultural Hall, have been mentioned in the county chapters. The harbor to this pleasant village enjoys the benefit of a light house that was erected in 1826 by the United States government. It is on the point of Sandy neck, at the entrance of the harbor. The importance of Barnstable early gave reason for a custom collector here, and for a century last past Barnstable has been the port of entry for the county. The custom house for the Barnstable district is here.

[photo of courthouse]
COURT HOUSE, BARNSTABLE VILLAGE.

    There are no mills or other manufacturing interests in this village at present. The old Lewis mill on the creek down "Poverty lane" has been still for many years. Elijah Lewis moved the building there and set up the mill soon after 1850. The wind salt mill just beyond was once used by the Crockers to grind corn; but long ago, with the salt works, the mill fell into disuse.

    West Barnstable is a business center in the west part of the town, known many years ago as Great Marshes and as West Parish. It is now a pretty and a busy village, the meeting place of the selectmen and the terminus of several mail lines connecting with villages on the south shore. The old West Parish church, a beautiful school hcuse, and the abodes of thrifty inhabitants unite in forming a village of no mean proportions. Here, besides others, settled the ancient families of Otis, Hinckley, Amiable, Crocker, Jenkins, Howland, Fuller, Parker, Bursley, Blossom and Shaw, many of whose descendants are the

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prominent heads of families to-day. Their old stone houses, erected as dwellings and forts, have succumbed to the march of improvement. Yet many historic places can still be pointed out to the antiquarian. On the site of the residence of Daniel P. Bursley formerly stood the residence of the patriot. James Otis, and to the east of it, on what is now a portion of the Colonel Proctor stock farm, stood the house of Brigadier Otis. The residence of a third brother, John, was west of the patriot's.

    Among other important landmarks is Hinckley lane, now called by some Nye's lane. It connects the present county road with that around by the church, and which was in use before the former was laid out. On this lane was the tanneiy of the father of Governor Hinckley. The name Nye's lane alludes to Lemuel Nye, of sixty years ago, who had a hat manufactory near a pond, which also bears his name. The south end of the lane passes through the land of Braley Jenkins and terminates at his residence. .Shaw's lane is another interesting by-way, as near it was the residence of the reverend father of Chief Justice Shaw.

    The historical details of this village are inseparable from those of Barnstable village, for the "house lot, the salt marsh, and the upland" of the proprietors were laid off in the same manner and at the same time. The division of the town into two parishes, as detailed in the church chapter, naturally gave the name of West parish to West Barnstable, and it has swelled its environs along the county road, forming a proverbial New England village—rural, rambling and beautiful.

    With the notable personages and the historical interest clustered here, no doubt very early stores were started, but tradition only furnishes facts for the century last past. Seth Parker, now an aged resident of West Barnstable, was in business in Boston with David Snow prior to 1833. For thirty years prior to 1863 he kept a store near his old house, on the county road west of the West Barnstable cemetery. In 1863 his son, J. W. B. Parker, then twenty-one years of age, began business near West Barnstable depot. Until 1870 Seth and David Parker were interested in the business, but for the last nineteen years J. W. B. Parker has been the sole proprietor. The venerable Seth Parker is the son of Seth and grandson of Dr, Daniel Parker.

    Among other stores was one kept prior to 1830 by Shadrach N. Howland, in the old house just east of his present residence. He moved to the square adjoining the cemetery about 1854. where. November 29,1872, the building and contents were burned and with them his son George H. He soon prepared another building on the east side of the street, to which he removed and continued business until 1880.

    In 1855 Frederick Parker opened a store one-half mile west of West Barnstable depot on the county road, in a building now owned by his

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son, Howard N. The center of business was there until the railroad was opened. Another son, Melvin Parker, in 1881 built a general store, where he still continues the business. The father died in February, 1882, and the business at the old place was discontinued.

    George B. Howland and his brother, Nathaniel P., in 1859, began a store in what had been the barroom of the Old Meadow House, and carried on the business until the death of Nathaniel P., in 1883.

    James T. Jones, who had been in business at East Sandwich, came here in 1873, locating on the street west of the depot, where he remained until 1876, when he erected and removed to his present commodious store.

    The travel along the Cape on the county road made an early tavern at West Barnstable necessary. On the north side of the road near the cemetery are the remains of the old Howland stand. In 1802 Ansel Howland passed this property to his son Jabez, who had managed the tavern and kept a store in part of it, before the beginning of this century. His son Albert opened, in 1848, another tavern west of this, where George B. Howland now resides. This was known for years as the Meadow House, and before the death of Jabez in the old tavern, the Meadow house became the principal tavern on this part of the line, and the favorite stopping place for the stages until the railroad superseded them. Albert's son, George B. Howland, preserves the old sign which bears the legend, "Meadow House, 1848."

    The early mails were brought here on horseback by John Thacher. The postmaster, who filed his first report with the government July 1, 1816, was one Samuel Bassett, who was followed by his son Charles, each keeping the office in the house then standing southwest of the present residence of William C. Howland. The old well and a few moss-grown apple trees mark the spot. The next postmaster was Albert Howland, commissioned January 29,1824. Jabez Howland, as his deputy, kept the office in the old tavern and store mentioned, and in August, 1841, Jabez Howland, jr., was appointed, and after a time removed the post office to a building where Josiah Jones now lives. Shadrach N. Howland says that he was postmaster in 1840, but the government records have the first mention of him dated April 8,1847. He kept the office near where he lives. Part of the old building, with the letter hole through it, is now a wood house for the recently built residence; and part was moved in 1854 to the square adjoining the cemetery, where the office was kept until the burning of the store. Mr. Howland kept the office a few months in the depot until he prepared a building, now the residence of Fred. Childs. His term was interrupted by the appointment of David Parker, 3d, November 18, 1864, when it was kept in the store of J. W. B. Parker. In 1880 Mr. Howland's second term was closed by the appointment of Melvin

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Parker, who removed the office to his store. He was succeeded from 1887 to 1890 by J. W. B. Parker, and was reappointed February 12, 1890.

    One of the important industries is the manufacture of brick. In 1878 Benjamin F. Crocker, Levi L. Goodspeed. Noah Bradford and Charles C. Crocker purchased the Fish property here, and with James F. Eldridge as superintendent, commenced the manufacture of brick, as The West Barnstable Brick Company. In 1887 a new company was formed, adding steam power and other facilities, and its capacity is now the manufacture of two million bricks annually. In 1889 the kiln sheds in the yard were extended, twenty men were given employment, and the business was extended to the full capacity of the works. The officers since 1887 have been; B. F. Crocker, president; A. D. Makepeace, treasurer: and William F. Makepeace, secretary.

    Since the advent of the railroad West Barnstable has been the point for leaving mail and passengers for offices and resorts on the south shore. Washburn Bursley had run a stage from the time the cars came until his death, and since then Daniel P., his son, has been the proprietor, conveying mail, passengers and express matter. The mails for Osterville, Centreville and Wianno are placed in pouches on the trains and left at West Barnstable to be conveyed to their destination. These mails are received twice a day and delivered by Mr. Bursley. who also delivers express matter and passengers at other localities. He uses eighteen horses for his business, and has well-equipped barges, coaches and express wagons. Another line of stages from West Barnstable was opened at the same time to supply Cotuit and Marston's Mills with mail, and to carry passengers. William F. Jones was proprietor of this until April, 1887, when he was succeeded by William H. Irwin, who properly continues it.

    The depot building was moved from the north side of the track a few years ago and placed on its present site. The buildings and conveniences are creditable to the company and village. The land on which the buildings stand is the poor house or town property, and is leased. Shadrach N. Howland was agent for the company at their depot until 1881. and his son. Andrew J., has since filled the position.

    The only mill to be seen in this vicinity is the Jones mill at the pond just west. It is a study for an antiquarian, and has fallen into disuse; it was run by the water from the large pond.

    Old Cotuit, as it is called, to designate it more distinctively from Cotuit Port, is on the road from Sandwich to Centreville and Hyannis, along which a stage line was early run, to connect with the Plymouth stage. A post office was established here as Cotuit Village. December 24, 1821. Roland Thacher Crocker was the first postmaster until his death in 1846, when he was succeeded, November 17th, by Rev. Phineas Fish. On the fifth of June, 1848, the name and location of the

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office was changed to Cotuit Port, and for a time the government maintained no office at Old Cotuit, but Zenas Crocker, sr., received and distributed mail for the locality. In January, 1850, an office was established here as Cotuit, with Phineas Fish, postmaster. It was discontinued May 29, 1854.

    To have a tavern upon so important a stage line would not seem strange, and it is said that Ezra Crocker opened one in the present residence of Mrs. Elizabeth Crocker, which he ran many years, until his death in 1842. This, which was a favorite resort of Daniel Webster during; his fishing tours in the vicinitv. was the onlv tavern ever in this community.

    R. Thacher Crocker had a store, which at his death he was conducting in the Joseph Folger house, with the post office. This accommodated the inhabitants of Mashpee and Cotuit for many years. On the inside of the board shutter to the store window, readable from without when it was open, were these cabalistic letters, still legible through many coats of paint:

W    I    N    E
R    U    M    ,
B    R    A    N    D    Y   ,
G    I    N    ,
&c.

    This sign seemed to promise wine to the passer-by, but on closer inspection it assured him of a good supply of West India and New England rum.

    Charles F. Crocker had a store on the corner opposite Mrs. Elizabeth Crocker's, which he discontinued in 1861. Zenas Crocker also had a store where Elmer Lapham lives.

    Cotuit Port.—The inhabitants here were compelled to go to the office a mile above—at Cotuit—while the stage and mail lines emanated from Sandwich as the terminus of the Plymouth line. After the railroad was built many changes in the mail routes were made. The first postmaster here was Alexander Scudder, commissioned June 5, 1848. He was succeeded by Randall Kelley, September 23, 1850, and he by Charles C. Bearse in 1870 for twelve years, after which Andrew Lovell filled the position until 1885, when Adaline F. Bearse was appointed. She was succeeded by Mr. Lovell's reappointment in 1889. Very early the shipping and fishing business was the occupation here, which led to stores of various kinds.

    Braddock Crocker built in 1794 the wharf, the remnants of which are still known as the old Crocker wharf, and had a store prior to 1820

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on what is now the property on the bank belonging to the estate of Samuel Hooper, deceased. Hezekiah Coleman built the wharf close by, known as "Uncle 'Kiah's wharf," where he also had a store soon after Mr. Crocker's. These were prominent stores and business places for many years; Mr. Crocker's was continued till his death in 1841. The Coleman store is now a part of Sylvester R. Crocker's house. Daniel Childs, about 1840, started a store on the site of Andrew Lovell's present office, and a portion of the building he occupied then is now doing service as Esquire Lovell's laundry room.

    Samuel Nickerson carried on a shoe store and clothing store here fourteen years prior to his death in 1884. Leancler W. Nickerson there carried on a mercantile business for several years, when in May, 1869, Asa F. Bearse opened his present store. John M. Handy was engaged in the mercantile business here from 1884 until his death in 1889. Others also in business are Julius Nickerson and Hemy Hodges. On the Heights, as it is termed, although in the same village, Aaron Nickerson started a store nearlv twenty years ago under the firm name of A. Nickerson & Son, the son, Alexander E., buying the business and stock in 1887. Daniel Nickerson was a merchant at this part of the village until his death a few years ago.

    About 1875 the late Ensign Nickerson began a grocery business at Highground, Cotuit. His son, GeorgeW., succeeded him. and in 1877 Aaron Nickerson & Son took the business, which, in January, 1889, the son. A. E. Nickerson, moved to his present store building. Ensign Nickerson had a small store here, which was burned about 1858. Since the opening of the Santuit House in June. 1860, this village has been growing in favor as a summer resort.

    An old landmark here is the residence of General John H. Reed. It was built in 1793 by Ebenezer Crocker, father of Braddock Crocker. Alexander Scudder, who married Braddock's daughter, next owned it and in 1849 he sold it to Hon. Samuel Hooper, whose granddaughter, Mrs. Balfour of Scotland, now owns it.

    Mariners Lodge, A. F. & A. M., was instituted in 1870. Preliminary meetings were held in the chambers of John M. Handy, Cotuit Fort, early in the year 1870, and March 10th a dispensation was granted to George J. Miller. W. M.: John B. Baxter, S. W.; John B. Lovell, J. W.; Thomas Chatfield. T.: John M. Handy, S.; Asa. F. Bearse, S. D.; Simeon L. Ames, J. D.; Alonzo L. Phinney, C; Sylvanus Porter, M.; Bennett W. Dottridge, S. S.: Frank Cammett, J. S.: and Stephen B. Tallman, T. A charter was granted to the lodge December 13, 1871, and in August following the number of members was thirty-seven. The installation of the first officers was held in Freedom Hall, and by arrangement with the proprietors of the hall, a suitable lodge room was, in 1872, prepared over the hall, which is still in use by the order.

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The masters have been: George J. Miller in 1871, 1872; John B. Baxter, 1873; Thomas Chatfield, 1874; William Childs, 1875, 1878,1879 and 1884; John M. Handy, 1876, 1877 and 1886; Joseph B. Folger, 1880, 1881, 1885 and 1889; Alexander PI Nickerson, 1882,1883,1887 and 1888.

    Osterville.—This thriving post-village in the southern part of the town is beautifully situated on Vineyard sound and enclosed by East and West bays.  The name is a contraction of Oysterville, from Oyster island, names properly given from the early business here carried on. Ship building was also one of the early industries by Andrew Crosby and Daniel Crosby, and as early as 1830 Oliver Hinckley, an apprentice of Jesse Crosby, whom he succeeded in the business, built thirty-five or forty vessels of seventy-five to one hundred tons in West bay. This business of the Crosby's has been carried on by various branches of the family since 1835, when they launched the first sailboat built on this part of the coast. Two brothers, C. Worthington and Horace S. Crosby, early started a boat-building business, which has been since subdivided and their sons are carrying on three separate yards, and building at West bay the finest boats ever built on the south shore. Horace S. retired about 1880 and his son, Herbert F., continues the business, in which also three younger sons—Wilton, Joseph and Horace M.—are engaged. Herbert F. started a separate place in 1882. C. W. Crosby, who had been in the business since 1835, took his sons, Charles H. and Daniel, into partnership for a while, and now the sons have a business of their own. Isaac Hodges, sr., also built vessels in that bay. Many also have been built at East bay, and foremost in this, about 1830, was Seth Goodspeed, who built a number. One sloop was built by him at his place, now Alexander Till's, and carted to the beach, which is related at the present time as a marvelous feat. It is said that nearly two-score vessels of various kinds were built at Osterville prior to 1850. At East bay Nelson H. Bearse and Jehiel P. Hodges built boats a few years prior to 1885, and Mr. Hodges still continues the business. Both bays are now more or less used for the construction of small craft.

    The manufacture of salt from sea water was extensively carried on here, especially at or near East bay. We learn that prominent in this industry were Thomas Ames, Seth Goodspeed. Eben. Scudder and George Hinckley. Jacob Lovell had works near O. D. Lovell's boat house, first from the eastward; he used two wind mills to pump the water to the works. Henry Lovell's was next west, then came Deacon Scudder's, then George Lovell's. These shores were covered with vats. The business was at its height in 1812. and gradually declined.

    With the building of vessels stores were started. We find Retire Crocker selling the necessaries of life in the building occupied by Freeman L. Scudder, before 1830, when it was a low, one-story build-

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ing. He was succeeded in the same building by Josiah Scudder, brother of Judge Scudder. He was succeeded by his son, Freeman L., and son-in-law, Asa E. Lovell. In 1857 George H. Hinckley, the present merchant and postmaster, purchased the stock, and afterward built his present place of business.

    Another early merchant was Daniel Crosby, who was succeeded by his brother Asa, and he in 1866 was succeeded by Israel Crocker, who has now the largest general store in the place. Soon after 1840, Erastus Scudder started a store in the building now occupied by Parker and Crocker. These gentlemen, after three years of co-partnership, April 5,1889, made two stores of the one—the dry goods business being continued by Charles F. Parker, and the grocery by Henry P. Crocker. In 1889 Joseph F. Adams was also in the mercantile business. Warren Marchant, after he was at Centreville, came here, married, and built a store, which he carried on for a few years.

    In 1876 Mr. H. S. Crosby opened the Crosby House at Osterville, and has made it the principal summer resort on the West bay.

    A free library was opened here January 21, 1882, by this enterprising people. A sum equal to $3,600 was given, besides 1,209 volumes, exclusive of the bound periodicals. The building and site are owned by the association. A fair for the sale of fancy articles is held each summer, and the proceeds go to the support of the library. Mrs. Eliza P. Lovell was librarian in 1889.

    The mails were received here by horseback in the earliest days of the post office. An office was established here January 30, 1822, and was kept by Retire Crocker in his store. Josiah Scudder, jr., kept the post office in the same building from July 23, 1825, until August 6, 1850, when Isaiah Crocker was appointed, and removed it to his blacksmith shop, serving the public for eight years. In 1858 Erastus Scudder, who was made postmaster, again removed the office to the building now occupied as a store by Charles F. Parker. Isaac Hodges succeeded him in the building now the store of Joseph F. Adams, and in 1862 he was succeeded by Asa Crosby, who removed the office to where Israel Crocker is in business now. In 1865 George H. Hinckley was appointed, and about ten years ago he moved the office to its present quarters, where he faithfully serves the public.

    Wianno Beach, near Osterville, has recently become one of the most popular resorts on the south shore. Bursley's line of stages and express connect it with the Old Colony railway at West Barnstable, and the government maintains a post office here during the season, sending a mail pouch from West Barnstable. Jennie L. Hinckley was postmistress in 1889.

    Hyannis.—This growing village on the south shore, four miles from Barnstable village, is the greatest business center of the town.

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The name is a corruption of Iyanough or Yanno—the name of the friendly sachem. It is more compact than the model inland New England village, which indicates a more brisk business. Prior to the opening of the Hyannis branch of the Old Colony railroad, which terminates here, packet lines connecting with large cities and vessels of large size touched here. It had formerly extensive fisheries and packing establishments, which were largely instrumental in giving the village its present importance. These industries are still continued, although not so extensively. At Lewis bay, east of the village, vessel building was extensively carried on soon after 1800. Abner W. Lovell had fishing vessels built at the foot of Ocean and Sea streets before the war of 1812; Richard Lewis owned the land from the Iyanough House back to the bay, where he carried on an extensive business in shipping of every kind, and built and furnished several vessels. Gorham Lovell was also engaged in the business. Watson Holmes built small vessels on Lewis bay, where M. L. Hinckley's oyster and boat house now stands. Vessels of one hundred tons were built on this bay.

    The first house erected here, near Baxter's wharf, was by Edward Coleman, who was admitted as a citizen of Barnstable in October, 1662. The first building erected by the whites here was a store-house, by Nicholas Davis, near where Timothy Baker's store stood. Jonathan Lewis, about 1703, built the second dwelling.

    In connection with the fisheries, the manufacture of salt was naturally developed, and the shores at the east and south were white with acres of vats. During the war of 1812 it was a prominent industry. Alvin Snow, Henry and Joshua Hallett had extensive works where is now the Sears lumber yard; A. W. Lovell manufactured near the present lumber yard of B. F. Crocker & Co. This, like most of the works, was discontinued about 1831. Lot Crocker had works where his descendants now reside, and Ebenezer Bacon's were adjoining. Zenas Gage engaged in the manufacture near his wharf; .Simeon Freeman had works at Dunbar point, and Zenas D. Bassett and Warren Hallett had their works next west. Other manufacturers were Elnathan Lewis. Warren and David Hinckley, and Gorham Lovell.

    That that portion of Barnstable was an important shipping port is evinced by the action of the selectmen, who in 1742 gave to Elisha Lumbert permission to build a wharf at Hyannis; but the inhabitants living there were to be privileged to land their goods and persons without charge. In 1778 the town gave Captain .Sturgis Gorham permission to build a storehouse thirty by forty feet, and a wharf at Lewis cove. Hyannis harbor is an important one and in 1826 the government appropriated 810,600 for the erection of a breakwater for its further protection. Storehouses and wharves have been erected

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during the present century, among which the Gage wharf, later Baxter, is prominent.

    There are no mills here at present, the last being that of Owen Bacon, a wind grist mill, which he ran many years on South street, near the old burying ground.

    The mercantile lines of business of this village have been varied and extensive. In 1823 Seth Baker had a small store in the leanto of his house. After this Lewis Thacher had an early store east of the present depot, on the south side of Main street, then the only store here. It was known for years as the old "Red Store." In 1829 Alexander Baxter and F. C. Tobey built the Boston store building, then the only one on the east side of Pleasant street, and the only one on the south side of Main street between Lot Hallett's corner and the present railroad track, except the old red store. Baxter & Tobey were succeeded in their business by Alexander Baxter, he by his tenants, Brimhall & Goodspeed, and they by George L. Thacher, who, with various partners, did business here about twenty-five years. In 1882 Eggleston Brothers, as successors of George L. Thacher, gave it the name of Boston store, and they in turn were succeeded in April, 1887, by Prince M. Crowell, who enlarged the business to its present importance. After the dissolution of the firm of Baxter & Tobey, Mr. Tobey erected the building on Pleasant street, now the market, which he ran as a general store until his death; he also built the Leonard Chase house.

    Another historic old business corner is where the venerable Captain Albert Chase has his store. We have noticed it in connection with the post offices. The building was erected in 1820 by Oliver Sampson, a shoemaker who lived where Dr. Pitcher now does, and was occupied as a blacksmith shop by Allen Draudy. Warren Hallett & Sons converted it into a store, and were succeeded by Joseph H. Parker and his brother-in-law, Freeman L. Scudder. Gorham F. Baker was the next merchant at this site, and was succeeded in the fall of I860 by his brother, Joshua, and Albert Chase, as Chase & Baker. Joshua Baker died in 1885 and the business passed to Captain Chase.

    J. H. Parker built the Hartson Hallett store and commenced in it in 1860 a business which was continued by him and his estate until 1867, when Mr. Hallett purchased it.

    A general variety and news store is kept by Henry H. Baker, who was the first news dealer at Hyannis. In 1854 he opened a restaurant at the depot, and in 1876 he built and located in his present business place.

    In February, 1860, George J. Miller began the tailoring business here on the site of George B. Lewis' present store; he removed his

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business from Barnstable village after a three years' trial there. He built in 1873, and removed the building- in 1885 to its present site on the northwest corner of Alain and Ocean streets, where clothing and furnishing goods have been added to his former business.

    The American Clothing House at Hyannis was opened in November, 1885, by Louis Arenovski, and is now the best equipped establishment of the kind in the county west of Harwich Port. Coming to the United States in 1881, he began his business on Cape Cod in a small way, and has been very successful.

    In 1866 A. G. Cash purchased the store and hardware business of N. O. Bond, who had continued it several years. In July, 1886, Myron G. Bradford became an equal partner, and the business of plumbing and roofing, with that of general hardware, is continued by Cash & Bradford.

    The lumber and carriage manufacturing business has become prominent very naturally. The carriage business now carried on by C. C. & B. F. Crocker was established in 1849, and since 1851 they have occupied their present site. In 1857 B. F. Crocker and his brother, Charles C, opened the lumber yard of B. F. Crocker & Co., still continuing it; also together manufacturing and painting carriages, and keeping paints and like materials for builders. Later, in 1869, two brothers, J. K. & B. Sears, bought of Samuel Snow the lumber yard at the head of Railroad wharf. In 1881 two sons of 13. Sears— Isaiah C. and Henry W.—became partners, creating the present firm of J. K. & B. Sears & Co. Branches from this yard are at Woods Holl and Middleboro.

    Prominent among the other industries here is the grain and flour business, by the Chase Brothers, near the depot. The father, Heman B., began it in 1848, and was running a packet from Hyannis to New York at the time, loading with fish westward, and returning with goods for merchants and grain for himself. In 1856 David S. Marchant became his partner, and they built a store on Railroad wharf, where for a few years they did business and continued the packet line as Chase & Marchant. In 1868, after the decline of freighting by water, Mr. Chase and his sons, Heman B. Chase, jr., and Clarence, engaged in the grain and coal business, near the depot, admitting, in 1874, a third son, Edward L., to the firm of Heman Chase & Sons. The father died in June, 1880, and Clarence in 1884. The remaining members of the firm still continue, the only change being the addition of hay to the list of merchandise.

    The only commission fish business is that of Timothy Crocker & Sons, on Railroad wharf. In 1860 Mr. Crocker started as a shipper of fish, and in 1882 Gideon Hallett became a partner for a short time, adding ice, coal and wood to the business.

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    Doctor Doane's office had been regarded as a drug store for some thirty years prior to 1883. when Arthur G. Guyer, who had been educated as a practical druggist, became Doctor Doane's partner, and they, as Doane & Guyer, opened the first regular drug store at Hyannis, January 1, 1883. The only other is a store started in 1887 by Dr. E. E. Hawes.

    There were, undoubtedly, ancient ordinaries here; but the present lyanough House, by Thomas H. Soule, jr., is of more interest to the present generation. It was first erected by Captain Charles Goodspeed in 1832, and was purchased in 1859 by Evander C. White, who enlarged and beautified it, and called it the White House. The name lyanough House was adopted in 1874, when the Hyannis Port Land Company controlled it. Mr. Soule purchased it in January, 1888, and has successfully conducted it since. He is a native of New Bedford, and had managed the Sherburne House, at Nantucket, prior to coming here. The lyanough House, throughout the year, is the principal hotel on the south shore, and entertains a fair proportion of the summer sojourners. The accompanying engraving shows the place in a scene looking toward the sound.

[small picture of buildings]

    Until within twenty-five years the business men of Hyannis and vicinity did their banking business chiefly at the old Yarmouth Bank; but on the tenth of March, 1860, the First National Bank of Hyannis was chartered as No. 1107, and authorized to begin business May 2d, with a capital not to exceed three hundred thousand dollars. Its business, however, was not begun until August 16th. and one-third of the authorized capital has been found sufficient. The institution has continually been under the most conservative management and has never passed a dividend. Its board of directors has included the ablest and strongest men of this part of the Cape. The first president was Alexander Baxter, who was succeeded at his death in 1870 by S. B. Phinney. The present head of the institution is Joseph R. Hall, one of the most conservative and successful financiers in the county. He

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was the first cashier, and on his promotion to the presidency was succeeded by his oldest son, Joseph T. Hall, who had been assistant cashier some fourteen years as successor to Frank Thacher, who was bookkeeper and assistant cashier until 1874. The president's only other son, Russell D. F. Hall, has been book-keeper since November, 1885.

    The Hyannis Savings Bank was chartered by the act of April 28, 1868,with S. B. Phinney, president; Joseph R. Hall, treasurer; and Frank Thacher, secretary. F. G. Kelley was the second president and Frank Thacher succeeded Mr. Hall as treasurer in 187-4. The board of trustees included such shrewd men as Joshua Baker, Owen Bearse, Charles C. Bearse, F. G. Kelley, S. B. Phinney and Alexander Baxter. The depreciation of real estate had been such that prior to 1880 the affairs of the bank went into the hands of Frank Thacher and Joseph R. Hall as receivers.

    The Old Colony Railroad Company has a very pretty depot, with telegraph and other offices on the second floor. Edwin Baker was appointed agent in 1854, and was succeeded for a few years by Obed Baxter until 1870, when Leonard Chase was appointed. On the first of April, 1889, the present agent, William F. Ormsby, received the appointment.

    A post office was established here in 1821, with Lewis Thacher in charge, with a commission dated December 26th. Otis Loring was made his successor October 26,. 1825, and was followed in office by Freeman Scudder, June 23, 1831. In March, 1833, Mr. Loring was again appointed and kept the office in the house now occupied by Mrs. Copeland on Main street. During Mr. Scudder's term it was located where Alexander Hinckley lives, January 14,1837. In January, 1837, Abner W. Lovell was appointed, serving until April 27, 1852, in the store building since occupied as a clothing store by Louis Arenovski. Mr. Lovell was eighty-six years old in 1889, and tells with boyish glee why he was superseded by Joseph H. Parker, who removed the office to the present store of Albert Chase, where the plain outside letter box is still attached. Mr. Parker soon sold out and went to sea, and Gorham F. Baker was the successor in the same place. This was under the administration of President Pierce and prior to 1856. He was succeeded by Daniel Crowell a short time, and he by Roland S. Hallett. In the administration of President Buchanan, George L. Thacher was appointed and held the office until F. C. Tobey was appointed early in the first term of the lamented Abraham Lincoln. He kept the office in his store by the stables of Leonard Chase, Pleasant street. His term was short and he was succeeded by R. S. Pope in the building now used by the library association. In 1871 Theodore F. Bassett was appointed, who removed a private school house to the site and inaugurated the present post office conveniences. The boxes and para-

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phernalia of this office, compared with the nine large and only boxes of the office in 1850, indicate one of the improvements of the pretty village of Hyannis. Charles G. Perry was appointed in 1885, and in June, 1889, the present efficient officer, George W. Hallett, assumed the control under the present administration.

    Besides the churches Hyannis supports several lodges and societies. The Independent Order of Odd Fellows, years ago, embraced here 112 members; and the Sons of Temperance, also the Daughters, separate organizations, now extinct, once flourished.

    Orient Chapter, R. A. M., has a large membership. It was instituted September 9, 1856, and meets in Masonic Hall. Sylvanus Baxter was the first H. P. in 1857, succeeded by Rufus S. Pope in 1858, who served until 1865, and again between the years 1868-70 inclusive. Joseph K. Baker served in 1866 and George J. Miller in 1867; Miller was re-elected in 1871, serving to 1875 inclusive, and again in 1881-86; J. W. Chapman was H. P. in 1876-80; George H. Smith, 1887-88; and N. A. Bradford was elected for 1889.

    Fraternal Lodge, A. F. and A. M., now at Hyannis, held its meetings at Barnstable village until 1854. It was chartered and the first meeting was held July 21, 1801, at the house of Robert Lothrop. Among its antiquities is the bill for its seal receipted by Paul Revere, November 19, 1801. The lodge leased a small hall where the present Masonic Hall is at Barnstable village, and purchased and remodeled it in 1830. After the removal of the place of meeting to Hyannis and the dedication of their fine hall there in 1855, the hall at Barnstable village was sold to the I. O. O. F.

    The first principal officers were; Ezra Crowell, W. M.; Robert Lothrop, S. W.; and Thomas D. Young, J. TV., who also served in 1802. The succeeding masters have been: Robert Lothrop, to 1805, and again in 1806; Samuel Allyn, in 1805; Job C. Davis, 1807 to 1811; Sylvester Baker, 1812 to 1815; William Lewis, from 1816 for several years, but how long can not be determined, as the records are deficient to 1839; Henry Baxter, 1840 to 1842; Davis Crocker, 1843 to 1849; Thomas Holmes, 1850; Sylvester Baxter, 1851; Daniel Bassett, 1852: Hartson Hallett, 1853; Rufus S. Pope, 1854 to 1861; John O. Thayer, 1855; H. W. Rugg, 1858, for four years; Samuel Snow, 1862; George J. Miller, 1863-64; A. S. Hallett. 1865; Dr. J. Winslow Chapman, 1866-67; Aaron C. Swift, 1868-69: Samuel Snow, 1870; Charles W. Hinckley, 1871 to 1873;. Alexander G. Cash, 1874-75 and 1879: George H. Smith, 1876-78; Henry D. Baxter, 1880; F. A. Bursley. 1881; Robert Lambert, 1882-83; S. F. Letteney, 1884-85: W. L. Hinckley, 1886-87; N. A. Bradford, 1888-89. O. C. Hoxie has been secretary for nearly thirty consecutive years.

    The Lodge of Good Templars was organized June 6, 1887, of which Daniel B. Snow was the first W. C, who served until May, 1888, and

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was succeeded by S. A. Putnam, B. F. Tripp. George L. Thacher, jr., John M. Blagden, and O. F. Robinson.

    Iyanough Lodge, K. of H., No. 1885, was instituted February 14, 1879, and meets in Masonic Hall. The first D. was George J. Miller, who was succeeded by John W. Chapman in 1880; by H. H. Baker in 1881: N. A. Bradford, 1882; Simeon F. Letteney, 1883: Henry W. Gray, 1884: George H. Cash, 1885: O. H. Crowell, 1886; George J. Miller, 1887; N. A. Bradford, 1888-89. It has eighty members, with George W. Hallett, R.

    The New England Order of Protection is a mutual life insurance association confined to New England. This branch of the order was organized October 17, 1888, with seventy charter members: only one other Lodge on the Cape had so many charter members, and that was at Chatham. The officers elected to serve until July, 1889. were: Simeon F. Letteney. warden; Alex. B. Chase, V. W.; Joseph T. Hall, treas.; and O. F. Robinson, sec. It numbered ninety-four members in 1889.

    The Hyannis Library Association was commenced by subscription, each one subscribing a fixed sum, which entitled him or her to a membership. In 1868 the association was organized. The library has been kept in the building east of the depot for several years, and is open to the public on Saturdays. It is free to members, others paying a small weekly fee for the use of books. The library in 1889 contained 959 volumes of well-selected literature.

    The Hyannis Cornet Band was organized in 1884, and is a credit to the village. A band stand was erected for its use in 1886, on Main street, near Park.

    Hyannis Port is a post-hamlet one mile southwest of Hyannis, on the coast, and has every advantage for being one of the best summer resorts along the south shore. The settlement and business of that part of Barnstable commenced here, and this community and Hyannis village are inseparably one, although differing in name somewhat. Schooners and coasters were built here by Crocker Marchant very-early, he being owner of the yard and a practical builder. Frederick Scudder, David Hinckley, Dea. James Marchant and Freeman Mar-chant made salt here soon after 1800. The plain, west toward Squaw island, was once active with these industries. The first store here was built by David Scudder, on the corner near the present Tower House. Freeman Marchant and Frederick Scudder succeeded him for several years, and Frederick Scudder closed this store about 1860, a portion of which is still on the site. Previous to the closing of this, he had built a wharf and store at the foot of Sea street, where the fishing and other business was mainly conducted.

    Freeman Marchant erected the present Tower House, which was

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run as a hotel for years, and is pleasantly situated. The entire vicinity was laid out by the Hyannis Port Land Company years ago for a village of much importance, but by some mismanagement or misfortune the undertaking did not succeed. Much of the property is now in possession of the bank at Framingham, where the company was formed. In September, 1872, Gideon Hallett built a hotel here, which was opened to the public in 1873. He added to it in the same year, making a large and convenient house,which is called "Hallett House." In 1888 Mrs. Emily Whelden purchased it and is the present proprietress. David Scudder started a post office when he had the store, in which he was succeeded January 2, 1829, by Frederick Scudder. Daniel Bassett was postmaster from April 18, 1840, until November 10, 1852, when the office was discontinued. In 1878 W. L. Hinckley revived the office and was appointed postmaster. The people receive a daily mail from Hyannis for nine months, and two a day in July, August and September.

    Centreville, the Chequaquet of the Indians, occupies, as the name implies, the central position among the hamlets on the south side. It is one of the most fertile and beautiful portions of the town. In the history of the town this portion was selected for settlement soon after it was purchased from the natives. Of its development prior to 1800 but little can be said, but it became prominent soon after that date as a favored locality for building vessels, in which James Crosby, Jonathan Kelley, Dea. Samuel Crosby and others engaged. Mr. Kelley, as early as 1830, built two a year for several years, and Mr. Crosby continued the business later where the store and house of Enoch Lewis stands. It is said that the last coaster built here was about the middle of the century and was sunk by the rebels while on a trip south during the civil war; Captain Ephraim Crowell was the master. Deacon Crosby built at Centreville wharf the last vessels built in this vicinity.

    Soon after 1830 Freeman Marchant built a small store here, now a part of Ferdinand G. Kelley's, in which his sister, Tirzah Marchant, kept the merchandise sold in Centreville. In 1837, after Warren Marchant had succeeded his aunt Tirzah, a company was formed called the Centreville Trading Company, with Warren Marchant agent. In 1841 Jonathan Kelley and son purchased the site and business, and in 1854, the son, Ferdinand G. Kelley, became sole owner and is still in the business. A second store was started in the spring of 1847 by Alvin Crosby and Ansel Lewis, from which Air. Lewis retired in March, 1868. Mr. Crosby continued the business until April, 1886, when he sold to Nathan H. Bearse and Harrison Phinney, who under the name of Bearse & Phinney continue in trade. The store has been by them given its modern form.

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    The third store at Centreville was built in the fall of 1847 by Wilson Crosby and his son, Frederick W. They continued a general trade until 1857, when the son went west, and Wilson Crosby continued in grain and flour until his death in December, 1874: Enoch Lewis, his son-in-law, has continued the business since. James Cornish had a small store prior to 18o7 near where he lives. Another store was started in 1868 by Moses F. Hallett. who in 1874 took his son, Samuel H., into partnership, and they still continue. The building has been enlarged from a smaller one—the shoe shop of Captain John C. Case.

    A drug store was run by Sylvanus Jagger during the last years of his life, and the business is continued by Maria G., his widow. Among those of the past is the store of Nelson Phinney, in a building in which he had previously and for many years carried on considerable of a carriage business; also the little store of Job Childs at his house. Other industries here are the tinshop of Clark Lincoln, operated since 1860, and the harness store of A. B. Gardner.

    An important feature in the mechanical department of Centreville's business is the part filled by Henry B. Sears. The shop was first started by Leander Gage, who sold to Clark Lincoln. William Jones purchased the shop and removed it to its present site, subsequently selling to its present proprietor.

    As a summer resort Centreville is preferred to many others. Its quietude and beauty, its shaded drives, fanned by the cool breezes from the sound, and other superior attractions, induce prolonged visits from people far and near.

    Howard Hall is a fine building erected in 1877, at a cost of two thousand dollars, by a stock company. On the lawn near the hall is a library building, containing a large and well-selected library, free to its members, and only a small fee is required from others.

    The old cemetery here was long ago supplemented by a later one near the church, and this in turn is now but little used. In 1855. No-vember 9th, a meeting was held by the citizens, and the Oak Grove Cemetery Association was formed. Five acres of suitable land were purchased just north of the village, on the West Barnstable road. This has been well fenced, and is the general burial place for the community. The officers for 1890 are: F. G. Kelley, treasurer, and Eli Phinney, clerk. Three directors are elected the first Monday in January of each year.

    A post office was established in 1834. with Warren Marchant, postmaster, from March 4th. He was succeeded, April 23, 1839, by Ferdinand G. Kelley, who has held it since, covering a period of over fifty years. Mr. Kelley's commission was signed by Amos Kendall, postmaster general.

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    In 1837 Gorham Crosby began making his house a stopping place for travelers. The old house was replaced by a new one in 1859, where Aaron Crosby, the son, continues to accommodate the public.

    Craigsville is a beautiful resort, just southeast of Centreville— between it and Hyannis—and is famous for its camp ground. Its visitors, attracted by its beauty and novelties, may be numbered by thousands each season. A post office is maintained here by the government during the season, a mail pouch being received from Hyannis. Miss Susie V. Aidrich was postmistress in 1889.

    Marston's Mills is the Indian Mistic, and is pleasantly situated between Osterville and Cotuit. Its importance, early in the history of the town, is largely due to the excellent power for mills, which were erected very early on the stream issuing from the several ponds at the north, flowing into Cotuit harbor. A fulling mill, a cloth dressing mill, a jewelry establishment, a grist mill and blacksmithing existed here at an early date. Here, as has been mentioned, was the ancient fulling mill of Thomas Macy—in 1689—on what was called Goodspeed river, for those families were the first here. This mill was used many years as a fulling mill. Benjamin Marston, through a long course of years, ran it. He was here in 1738, from which time it took its present name. In 1829 the former business of the place had dwindled to a grist mill, and to carding, cloth dressing, fulling, etc., by Robert Francis and A. B. Marston. Francis sold out in 1829 to Nathaniel Hinckley, who enlarged the building and added one of Copeland's first-class carders. He continued the carding and cloth dressing until 1852, when Rufus Churchill became a partner. They purchased cotton in Boston, and here made cotton batting until 1855, when the death of Mr. Churchill's son, for whom it was purchased, caused its decline. Neither party wished to purchase the share of the other; the old mill was subsequently removed, and the remains of the dam, on the land of Lilly Backus, is the only remaining memento of this important fulling mill, except this history.

    At a proprietors' meeting, February 13, 1704-5, at the request of John Stacy (or Stasye), the privilege to erect a dam on the Goodspeed river, or Cotuit, was given, if he would build a grist mill for the benefit of the inhabitants, and charge only two quarts to the bushel for toll. This dam was not to interfere or "damnifie or pen any back water to hinder the fulling mill already set up." Chipman Hinckley and Ebenezer Scudder subsequently owned the old mill, which was purchased in 1842 by Nathaniel Hinckley, who put it in order, adding a corn and cob cracker. Mr. Hinckley now made an unsuccessful attempt to put the two dams together, for the purpose of starting a paper mill to work the beach grass of the Cape into paper. The mill, in 1889, with its dam, was still to be seen as of yore, and Mr. Hinck-

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ley, venerable in age and good works, was still seen passing to and fro between it and his residence. Not only do these mills render this hamlet of historic interest, but it was the home of Judge Nymphas Marston, who died in the house now occupied by Heman Thomas, on the knoll just west of the mill.

    Early stores were established, but the first of which any record can be found was that of Nathan Hinckley, in 1820, in an addition to his house. He lived northeast of the present village, and this was for fifty years the leading store of that part of Barnstable. In 1826 Nathaniel Hinckley had a store at the mills, which in 1833 he sold to William Marston, his clerk, who was in business forty years or more before L. N. Hamblin & Co. began business. George L. Hamblin now keeps the only store here, having succeeded the last named company.

    The enterprising citizens erected Village Hall in 1859 for their own and public use, and it is well kept up by the stock company owning it.

    Nathaniel Hinckley was the first postmaster and we find him in his office in January, 1828, at his residence, where he kept it until November 8, 1854. Charles Bassett was then appointed, who, with Russell Hinckley and John J. Backus, filled the time to 1879—the date of the appointment of Dennis H. Mecarta. Mrs. Harriet A. Mecarta has been postmistress since the death of her husband in 1885-6. Nathaniel Hinckley has filled various offices of trust in the town. He was elected ten different years representative to the general court, and in the years 1836 and 1869 was appointed lay the respective speakers on the committee on revision of the public statutes. He has also been register of probate and sheriff of the county, and was appointed by President Lincoln commissioner of the board of enrollment during the rebellion.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.