17th to 19th century Massachusetts in fiction and non-fiction,
with a focus on Cape Cod, Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard,
and some random other stuff

revised Jan 2013

CapeCodHistory home page, 1890 Massachusetts Gazetteer

contact: webmaster[at]capecodhistory.us

I spent vast amounts of time scanning and formatting some of these, but Google Books and Archive.org are making parts of my project redundant. All for the best, but for now this page may remain useful as a focus of Cape Cod and early New England literature. Most of the OCR was done with Abbyy 7.0, but now (2011) the company has no record of my purchase, so I can't install it on a new PC. There is good, free online OCR: newocr.com/


Timothy Dwight. Travels in New-England and New York. v3. 1823
Enoch Pratt History of Eastham ... 1844 mine
Frederick Freeman. History of Cape Cod. v1.
Frederick Freeman. History of Cape Cod. v2. 1862
Albert P. Palmer. History of Wellfleet Methodist Church. 1877
Frederick Freeman. Civilization and Barbarism. 1878
Shebnah Rich. Truro, Cape Cod. Land marks and sea marks. 1883
Charles F. Swift History of Old Yarmouth. 1884
Charles F. Swift Cape Cod: The Right Arm of Massachusetts. 1897
Simeon L. Deyo History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts. 1890
Albert Perry Brigham. Cape Cod and the Old Colony. 1920
Nancy W. Paine-Smith. The Provincetown Book. 1922

acts of the Massachusetts legislature

My page of links to free online books, current and ancient. Additions welcome.
More focused index pages include just the natural history , piracy, and Indian articles.
Most of the pieces posted here were scanned from original, photocopied or microtext material, and converted to text with OCR (optical character recognition) applications. OCR comments
Morse Payne has a ridiculous theory about surveying the town boundaries of 17th-century Plymouth Colony.
recent additions and revisions:
1858 wreck of the Wild Wave at Oeno, as told by JF Bartlett, part 1
1855 court case involving salvage rights to distressed clipper John Land

articles are arranged more or less by publication date:

An Account of the Method of Making Sugar from the Juice of the Maple Tree in New England.
By Paul Dudley, Esq; F. R. S. Communicated by John Chamberlayne, Esq.
Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775), Vol. 31: 27-28. (1720 - 1721) The Royal Society.

An Account of the Poyson Wood Tree in New-England.
By the Honourable Paul Dudley, Esq, F. R. S. Communicated by John Chamberlain, Esq
Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775), Vol. 31: 145-146. (1720 - 1721) The Royal Society.

A Description of the Moose-Deer in America.
By the Honourable Paul Dudley, Esq; F. R. S. Communicated by John Chamberlayne, Esq.
Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775), Vol. 31
: 165-168. (1720 - 1721) The Royal Society.

An Account of a New Sort of Molosses Made of Apples; And of the Degenerating of Smelts.
By the Honourable Paul Dudley, Esq; F. R. S.
Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775),
Vol. 32: 231-232.
(1722 - 1723) The Royal Society.

An Account of the Rattlesnake.
By the Honourable Paul Dudley, Esq; F. R. S.
Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775), Vol. 32:
292-295. (1722 - 1723) The Royal Society.

An Account of an Extraordinary Cure by Sweating in Hot Turff; With a Description of the Indian Hot-Houses;
By the Honourable Paul Dudley, Esq; F. R. S.
Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775), Vol. 33: 129-132. (1724 - 1725) The Royal Society.

Observations on Some of the Plants in New-England, with Remarkable Instances of the Nature and Power of Vegetation. In a Letter to the Publisher from the Honourable Paul Dudley, Esq; F. R. S.
Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775), Vol. 33: 194-200. (1724 - 1725). The Royal Society.

An Account of the Several Earthquakes Which Have Happen'd in New-England, since the First Settlement of the English in That Country, Especially of the Last, Which Happen'd on Octob. 29, 1727.
Communicated to the Royal Society by Paul Dudley, Esq; F. R. S. in a Letter to the Secretary
Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775), Vol. 39: 63-73. (1735 - 1736) . The Royal Society.

An Essay upon the Natural History of Whales, with a Particular Account of the Ambergris Found in the Sperma Ceti Whale. Paul Dudley. 1724-1725. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 33: 256-269
These are a typical 18th century natural history articles, with a mix of accurate reporting, scientific speculation and tall tales.

Publication of the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society began in 1792, with early volumes every year or two. Some pieces are really interesting, some really dull, some useful, some trivial. I'm not scanning and posting the whole volumes, because it's a lot of work, and I have plenty of other projects, but the full Tables of Contents are included for most volumes. What's here are mostly town descriptions and histories, and descriptions of the Indians. There is much material on Maine, since that was still part of Massachusetts at the time, a few articles on Rhode Island and Connecticut, and random other things that intrigued me or just had overlapping pages.
Collections contents - this has become a large fraction of my site, with several large files from several volumes.

Travels through the Northern Parts of the United States in the years 1807 and 1808. in 3 volumes. Edward Augustus Kendall. 1809. New York: I Riley
    introduction and table of contents, Cape Cod, Cape Cod, Islands and Bristol county, Boston, politics, Maine
Kendall was an Englishman, traveling at a time when anti-British feeling was high. He is much more critical than American authors, with some dry humor, and some interesting debunking of local stories. The "northern parts of the United States" meant New York and New England then.
Visit to the Elizabeth Islands. unstated author. North American Review 5 (15): 313-324 (Sept 1817)
Light travel piece about the islands between Martha's Vineyard and Cape Cod, and including a section on Gay Head and the Indians.
Journey to Provincetown, a section of Travels in New England and New York. in 4 volumes. Timothy Dwight. 1821-1822. New Haven: Timothy Dwight. 1969 edition, edited by Barbara Miller Solomon. Cambridge MA: Harvard University
    Cape Cod section, table of contents for whole set
Rev. Timothy Dwight, president of Yale, "the Pope of Connecticut," made many trips on horseback, from the 1790's to 1815, exploring the towns, people, morals, character, scenery and industries of the US Northeast. His trip to Cape Cod was made in 1800, but there is also later material included. The books were written deliberately (as "letters to a gentleman") by a conservative nationalist  to show off the positive qualities of the region to Europeans . He approved of Cape Codders, except there was intemperance on the Upper Cape. He thought the dunes of Provincetown were beautiful, the forests of the Lower Cape pathetic, and noted how the soil of the Lower Cape was largely blown away. He described the mandatory planting of beach grass in Truro to prevent erosion.

New England Farmer and Horticultural Journal. containing essays, original and selected, relating to agriculture and domestic economy; with Engravings, and the prices of country produce. Vol. VIII. Thomas G. Fessenden. 1829-1830. Boston: John B. Russell
      selections, comments
I have this one bound volume of weekly journals, covering the time from July 1829 - July 1830. The title is a pretty accurate description of the major contents. Many of the pieces are copied from, and credited to, other journals. The major pieces are on livestock, horticultural techniques, new varieties of produce, pest control, &c., with weekly prices for produce in Boston and livestock in Brighton. Other pieces: American silk production was clearly a fad industry (at least 45 entries), hemp growing (for fiber) was experimental, tobacco use was condemned, temperance (not abstinence!) was advocated, slavery was barely mentioned, state militias were being abolished, railroads were in their infancy but clearly superior to canals. I'm transcribing some parts that amuse and interest me.
The Whale Fishery. compilation. North American Review 38 (82): 84-116 (January 1834)
A history of British and American whaling in mostly Arctic seas.
New England Gazetteer. John Hayward. 1839.
      Cape & Islands      other Massachusetts
I scanned the entries for Cape Cod, Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. The towns were small; the industries were fishing, whaling, shipping and salt-making. There seem to be numerous factual errors, and spelling of place names is inconsistent.
      Connecticut       Maine       Vermont
There are also some Connecticut, Maine and Vermont entries.

A Comprehensive History, Ecclesiastical and Civil, of Eastham, Wellfleet and Orleans, County of Barnstable, Mass. from 1644 to 1844. Rev. Enoch Pratt. 1844. Yarmouth Massachusetts: W. S. Fisher and Co.
Pratt (1781-1860) was a Congregational minister in Barnstable, Wellfleet and Eastham. This is a major source for the history and genealogy of the Nauset towns, but heavy on church minutia.

An Elementary Geography for Massachusetts Children. William B. Fowle and Asa Fitz. 1845. Boston: Fowle and Capen
This small book is an overview of the world, the United States, and particularly Massachusetts.  This was written as an elementary school textbook, and all the entries are very brief.

There are 2 options of files to read:
     An older one has just the entries for Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. These had small towns, with barren land, where the inhabitants engaged in fishing, salt manufacture, and whaling.
    The more recent file has the entire text, 650KB.
Seals and Whales. unstated author. 2 Nov 1851. Harper's New Monthly Magazine 3 (18): 764-767
A brief account of the contemporary whaling and sealing industry, which was in a period of decline, with a focus on the British sealers.
Eastham Camp Meeting. 1851. Gleason's Pictorial Magazine 1(20): 313
There is a picture of some participants, with a skeptical note.
 Hurry-graphs. or, Sketches of Scenery, Celebrities and Society, taken from life. N. Parker Willis. 1851. New York: Charles Scribner
Included here are 1 chapter on  New Bedford and 5 on Cape Cod. Willis was a prominent editor and magazine writer of the era. His Cape Cod was quaint, barren and rather alien.
                  Conspiracy ExposedThe Papal Conspiracy Exposed. Rev Edward Beecher. 1854. Boston: Stearns & Co.
A bit of sectarian vitriol, condemning the Romanist system as anti-American, anti-Biblical, bloody, intolerant and totalitarian. Just the introduction is here.
Google edition

  The D.M. Hall v. The John Land decision. 1855
Federal court decision on salvage rights. The clipper John Land was in distress, and rescued by the whaler D.M. Hall. Who gets paid, how much and why.
"The Wreck of the Wild Wave," part 1. James F. Bartlett. The Sailor's magazine and Seamen's Friend. Jan 1915, LXXXVII (1) 146-151
The clipper Wild Wave wrecked at Oeno atoll in March 1858. The search for help was dramatic. Bartlett was First Officer.
A Dash at Cape Cod. unstated author, but probably Thoreau. 1857. Putnam's Magazine 9 (49): 62-70
An early and very flattering description of the Cape and its people, one Indian summer. The author traveled by stage-coach (because the train tracks ended mid-Cape) to Orleans. There is a focus on the people - their appearance, habits, county fairs. MOA
The book we know as Henry David Thoreau's Cape Cod was originally published as sets of pieces in Putnam's Magazine (1855) and The Atlantic monthly (1864). Cape Cod is inexplicably famous, widely available in print, and online, so I won't post it myself. Another online edition.

(1855) and Cape Cod - the Shipwreck. 1855. Putnam's 5 (30): 632-637 MOA
Cape Cod - Stage Coach Views. 1855. Putnam's 5 (30): 637-641 MOA
Cape Cod - the Plains of Nauset. 1855. Putnam's 6 (31): 59-67 MOA
Cape Cod - the Beach. 1855. Putnam's 6 (32): 157-164 MOA
The Highland Light. 1864. Atlantic monthly 14 (86) : 649-660 MOA
The Wellfleet Oysterman. 1864. Atlantic monthly 14 (84): 470-478 MOA
H.D. Thoreau. Cape Cod. review. 1865. New England and Yale review 24 (92): 602-603 MOA

Landing of the Pilgrims. D.W. Clark. 1858. The Ladies' repository 18 (1): 7-10
A pious mix of patriotism and religion, by the editor of this Methodist journal. It is largely a section of Mourt's Relation, describing the difficulties of the first winter in Plymouth, with the author's introduction and conclusion.
Coast Surveys. JDB Debow.   Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources.  26 (3):328-330, Mar 1859
Comparison of the small efforts of the US to survey its coast to the European countries, particularly Britain.

Captain Tom: a Resurrection. Charles Nordhoff. 1860. Harper's New Monthly Magazine 20 (119): 620-628
Cape Cod sea-tale of obsession and recovery. MOA link

A Summer in New England. Second Paper. D.H. Strother. 1860. Harper's New Monthly Magazine 21 (124): 44-461
Strother wrote a set of 5 articles for Harpers in 1860, set in New Haven, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Massachusetts' South Shore, and White Mountains. This is the Martha's Vineyard piece. The author strolls around, gathers local tales and historical bits, goes fishing. His attitude toward everyone is somewhat condescending, and toward the aboriginals is blatantly racist. But you get a feel for the land, the time, the people.

A Summer in New England. Third Paper. D.H. Strother. 1860. Harper's New Monthly Magazine 21 (126): 745-763
This is the Nantucket piece of the set. Nantucket was way past its whaling heyday, becoming a quiet tourist town. A large fraction of the men had caught California fever, and left. The retired and semi-retired captains tell tales. Again, you get a feel for the land, time, and people; especially since the author goes to Boston at the end, and contrasts the steady quiet Quaker Nantuckoise to the ostentatious, loud, bustling city (and even at that finds Boston staid compared to New York.) Nice illustratiions.

Highland Light. B. F. DeCosta.  Nov 1863. The Ladies' repository: a monthly periodical, devoted to literature, arts, and religion  23 (11): 669-671
A romantic look at the Light and its context, with a separate poem about the Highland Cliffs by the same author.
Monomoy. G.H. Ballou. 1864. Harper's New Monthly Magazine 28 (165): 305-311
A light look at the hamlet on Monomoy, constantly under assault from winds and waves. MOA
Mehetabel Roger's Cranberry Swamp. Charles Nordhoff. 1864. Harper's New Monthly Magazine 28 (165): 367-377
Cape Cod sea-tale, perhaps true, of the dangers of fishing the Banks, and the discovery of cranberry farming. Fishing was already a failing industry! MOA

Charles Nordhoff (1830-1901), author of several of these articles, was a significant 19th century author and social commentator. He was grandfather to the Charles Nordhoff who co-wrote Mutiny on the Bounty, etc. Short biographies: encyclopedia.com, Famous Americans
Cape Cod. the last chapter in Cape Cod to Dixie and the Tropics. 1864. Milton Mackie. New York: G.P Putnam.
Travel anecdotes, human interest, ethnic prejudice.
American Fisheries. J. D. B. DeBow. 1859 - 1867. Debow's review, Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources.
A long  survey  of the American fisheries (including the whale fishery), spread over several issues.
The Massachusetts Slave Trade. J. D. B. DeBow. 1866. Debow's review. Agricultural, commercial, industrial progress and resources.
A feeble complaint about the hypocrisy of Mass. abolitionists by a major apologist.
Cape Cod Rhymes. T. N. Stone, M.D. 1869. Cambridge Massachusetts: Riverside Press
Dr Thomas Newcomb Stone (1818-1876) was a Wellfleet physician, and a major figure in town for decades. The author's introduction says that the contents are "rhymes," not "poems" - diversions of a busy physician's spare minutes, not serious literature by a professional poet. I'm not much of a judge, and he was being self-deprecating to forestall the critics, but I don't think he's an overlooked genius. But they're nice, and topical, so I've copied two of his poems from the book: The Pilgrim's Pot of Clams and A Rhymster's Dream, plus two more that were on newspaper clippings inside the book: The Hyena Hunt and After the Party. A Parody of Hohenlinden.
The Northmen. Appletons' journal: a magazine of general literature. 6 (122): 137-138. 29 July 1871
There is only thin evidence for the Vikings in New England, but lots of 19th & 20th century myth.
Mouth of the Bass. Augusta Moore. 1873. The Ladies' repository 12 (5): 349-352
A pleasant description of Cape Cod, already old and quaint, at Bass River. Home prices go "from $150 to $300, and any one of them quite good enough for Summer camps."
The Rights and Wrongs of Seamen. Charles Nordhoff. 1874. Harper's New Monthly Magazine 48 (286): 556-562
An exposé of dangerous ships, their greedy owners and brutal officers, with suggestions for legal reforms. This has nothing in particular to do with New England, but may be source material for its maritime authors, for example Joseph Lincoln's first novel, Partners of the Tide. MOA
  A Gazetteer of the State of Massachusetts. Rev. Elias Nason, M.A. 1874. Boston: B. B. Russell. 1874.
Barnstable county excerpts. Eastham was not included in the book.

 Out of the Depths. S.G.W. Benjamin. 1879. Appleton's Journal 7 (12): 122-129      
Cape Cod sea-tale of loss and recovery.

 Cape Cod Folks. Sally Pratt McLean. 1881. Boston: A. Williams & Co. Old Corner Bookstore.
      my review

An educated and wealthy young woman from the vicinity of New York applies for and accepts the position of school-mistress at the fictional hamlet of Wallencamp. The Cape Codders are colorful, happily ignorant, mostly quite pious, and desperately poor. The teacher learns about the monotony of seasonal food, about the lives and deaths of poor people, about how to work practically and teach in a one-room school, and about the social conventions of visiting and church. She brings education, gentility and books. It could have been set nearly anywhere; there's little identifiably Cape Cod about the setting, people or dialog. But it was a success, reprinted several times and performed on stage. The author was even successfully sued for libel.

 Cape Cod. F. Mitchell. 1883. The Century 26 (5): 643-659

A description of the history, people and landscape, with anecdotes; comparisons of current landscapes to settlers' descriptions; Quaker and Congregational church history; beginning of summer tourism; Mashpee Indian survival; cranberry farming; with several pictures of people and places. The original has some nice pictures.       MOA

 The New England Town-house. J. B. Sewall.1884. The Bay State Monthly 1 (5):284-290   

A brief history of town government, its antecedents, and significance.
Brant-Hunting at Cape Cod. Orville Deane. 1885. Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly 19 (113): 625-628
Shooting from a blind at Monomoy. A little natural history, a little landscape desciption. Full issue table of contents at end. The article "A Tour in the Vosges," by Katharine Lee shows some very unusual folkways.

  Ten Days in Nantucket. Elizabeth Porter Gould. 1885. The Bay State Monthly 3 (3): 190-201     

This is a description of the sights and pleasures of the curious island, written up as a family's vacation report. It's very awkwardly written, but informative. This a pleasant illustration of boats in the harbor on page 190, and an interesting collage of the sights on page 193. MOA

A Brief Biography of the Halibut. G. Brown Goode (Oct. 1885) The American Naturalist (10): 953-969.
Biology and geography of halibut, noting that it too, was being severely overfished.

  The Outlook of the Fisheries. J.W. Collins. 1886. The Century 32 (6): 959-961    

Outlook grim, due to open fish trade agreement with Britain. MOA link
The Present Wholesale Destruction of Bird-Life in the United States. J. A. Allen. 1886. Science 7 (160):191-195
  Destruction of Birds for Millinery Purposes.
Science, Vol. 7 (160): 196-197. 26 Feb 1886
  Destruction of Bird-Life in the Vicinity of New York. Willliam Dutcher. Science 7 (160):  197-199. 26 Feb 1886
Destruction of the Eggs of Birds for Food. Geo. B. Sennett. Science 7 (160): 199-201. 26 Feb 1886
The Relation of Birds to Agriculture. Science 7 (160): 201-202. 26 Feb 1886
Bird-Laws. Science 7 ( 160): 202-204. 26 Feb 1886
An Appeal to the Women of the Country in Behalf of the Birds. Science  7 (160): 204-205. 26 Feb 1886
The American Ornithologists' Union Committee on Bird-Protection. Science  7 (160): 205. 26 Feb 1886
   The Destruction of Birds. Amos W. Butler. Science 7 (162): 241-241, 12 Mar 1886
Statistics on the pointless horror of the slaughter, with ridicule of the wearers, and pleas for moral and legal action.
 "   In this country of 50,000,000 inhabitants, half, or 25,000,000, may be said to belong to what some one has forcibly termed the 'dead-bird wearing gender,' of whom at least 10,000,000 are not only of the bird-wearing age, but — judging from what we see on our streets, in public assemblies and public conveyances — also of bird-wearing proclivities. Different individuals of this class vary greatly in their ideas of style and quantity in the way of what constitutes a proper decoration for that part of the person the Indian delights to ornament with plumes of various kinds of wild fowl. Some are content with a single bird, if a large one, mounted nearly entire : others prefer several small ones, — a group of three or four to half a dozen ; or the heads and wings of even a greater number. Others, still, will content themselves with a few wings fancifully dyed and bespangled, or a wreath of grebe 'fur,' usually dyed, and not unfrequently set off with egret-plumes. In the average, however, there must be an incongruous assemblage made up of parts of various birds, or several entire birds, representing at least a number of individuals. "
The Sea Serpent. B. A. Colonna. 1886. Science 8 (189):: 258
    Apropos to Pterandon and Homo. Samuel Lockwood. 1886. Science 7 (162): 242
A "scientific" report of a sea serpent off Cape Cod, and a complaint about artistic and editorial license.
The American Whale-Fishery, 1877-1886. A. Howard Clark. 1887. Science 9 (217): 321-324
Statistics of place, value, tonnage and hunting grounds on a dying industry.

The Autobiography of a New England Farm House. A romance of the Cape Cod lands. N. H. Chamberlain. 1888. Boston: Cupples and Hurd
      full text link to the 1865 edition, comments

This is a mystery and romance, set in "Sandowne," which stands in for Sandwich. The time is perhaps 1830-1840 for the main events. Chamberlain was born and lived in that area, so I'll assume his settings are accurate. The town is quiet, stagnant even. The old Puritan spirit survives weakly in the habits and memories of its citizens. The tavern is the likely road to ruin for its frequenters, who will end up in the poor-house. A forest fire threatens to run through miles of woodlots. There was a community Cranberry Day, when everyone picked the berries on town lands. The May militia muster is Search Day, where most of the men are required to attend with their weapons, gear and uniforms for inspection and parade — the men are utterly undisciplined, their weapons a motley collection, and their gear sub-standard. The setting is interesting, but the characters and plot are not. And the novelist was a minister, so there is page after page of tedious philosophy and religion, masking a feeble Gothic tale.

 Sandwich and Yarmouth. Rev. N.H. Chamberlain. 1889. New England Magazine 7 (3): 301-313
1889 was the 250th anniversary of the founding of Sandwich and Yarmouth (and Barnstable). Chamberlain brags about the difficulties overcome by the Pilgrims, discusses the persecution of Quakers, honors the Indian missionaries Bourne, Treat, and Tupper, notes that a party of 90 Acadians was stopped at Sandwich in1756 (apparently trying to sail home to Nova Scotia from Rhode Island), brags about Revolutionary spirit, notes the substantial consumption of bottled spirits, and notes (as do many writers) the life-long desire of far-traveled Cape Codders to return to their sand spit. The pictures seem uninteresting, as seen thru MOA. MOA

A Gazetteer of the State of Massachusetts, with Numerous Illustrations. Rev. Elias Nason, M.A.; revised and enlarged by George J. Varney. 1890. Boston: B.B. Russell. 724 pages. the Gazetteer (350 KB).

This is a large section of my web site, describing for the Commonwealth, for each county, and for each city and town: statistics on farm, fishing, and industrial production; population, number of (male) voters, number of "taxed dwelling-houses", and total property valuation with tax-rate; railroad lines and stations, and post-offices; location with respect to Boston, topography, soil types and minerals; school grades and buildings; newspapers, libraries and their number of books; church buildings and sects; scenic interest, historical anecdotes and prominent citizens; Civil War manpower contributions, losses and memorials.

The counties, towns and villages and geographic features are also arranged alphabetically. There are typically one or two text pages per town. Here are the Cape and Islands:

Barnstable County (Cape Cod) overview

There are 15 towns — Barnstable, Bourne, Brewster, Chatham, Dennis, Eastham, Falmouth, Harwich, Mashpee, Orleans, Provincetown, Sandwich, Truro, Wellfleet, and Yarmouth.

Dukes County (Martha's Vineyard and Elizabeth Islands) overview

The towns embraced in this county — six in number — are Chilmark, Cottage City, Edgartown, Gay Head, and Tisbury, on Martha's Vineyard, and Gosnold, comprising the Elizabeth Islands.

Nantucket County overview
One town: Nantucket.

The History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts. Simeon L. Deyo, editor. 1890. New York: HW Blake & Co.

This is a condensed history, heavily based on Frederick Freeman's History of Cape Cod (1858, 1862). It was updated with short biographies of men prominent in 1890. Here are the Table of Contents, Industrial Resources, Lawyers, Physicians, Authors and Publications, Bourne, Bourne biographies, Sandwich, Sandwich biographies, Falmouth, Falmouth biographies, Barnstable, Barnstable biogrpahies, Mashpee, Dennis, Harwich, Chatham, Brewster, Orleans, Eastham, Wellfleet, Truro and Provincetown histories and biographies. Wellfleet is indexed

There are Biographical Sketches at the end of each  town chapter, which I am converting to separate files.
Copper Implements. W. M. Beachamp. 9 Jan 1891 Science 17 (414): 25-27
A description of some ancient and recent copper tools and ornaments from Amerindian sites in New York and Massachusetts, concluding that an alleged Norse burial in Fall River, Mass. was actually of an Amerindian, with European trade goods.

 Dyer's Hollow. Bradford Torrey. 1891. The Atlantic Monthly 68 (407): 313-319

The author spent some vacations at Dyer's Hollow, aka Longnook, in Truro. A bit condescending, but an interesting description of the desolate landscape, and with surprised praise for its new Portuguese inhabitants. MOA

 Off Monomoy Point. William Earle Baldwin. 1892. New England Magazine 12 (6): 743-751     

A short romance with a Monomoy setting.

  Garden and Forest. A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art and Forestry. (1888-1897)

Articles on Cape Cod gardening, cranberry cultivation, land preservation, town descriptions, Province lands. unfinished.

  In the Gray Cabins of New England. Rebecca Harding Davis. 1895. The Century 49 (4): 620-624   

Rural New Englanders, especially women, are so very poor and isolated that they need the help of their wealthy urban contemporaries to break the cycle.
The Sand-Plains of Truro, Wellfleet, and Eastham. Amadeus W. Grabau  Science, New Series, 5 (113): 334-335, 26 Feb 1897
A short geological piece.
Migration of Bats on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Gerrit S. Miller. Science, New Series 5 (118): 541-543. 2 Apr 1897
What were they thinking? Miller and company quantified 3 species of  bats by shooting them at Highland Light.

 Daniel Webster on Cape Cod and Its People. 1897. New England Magazine 23 (3): 323-327

Daniel Webster wrote this in 1851 as a public letter to Dr William Gooch of West Dennis, a supporter of the Senator and Secretary of State. It's a politician's letter, with positive anecdotes about current Cape men and character, praise for revolutionary James Otis, a defense of American republican government and its successes, and patriotic hoo-hah. MOA

 By-Laws of the Town of Wellfleet, Massachusetts. 1898.

This is a section of the by-laws that I found interesting as a reflection of the concerns of the times.
Sweet Rosemary and Forget-Me-Nots. Betsey Libby. 1898. Hyannis, Mass: Goss Publishers and Printers
This is a thin volume of poetry published as a memorial to the author by her husband. It has a very Victorian preoccupation with death, but also some Wellfleet history.

Sand 'N' Bushes. Maria Louise Pool. 1899. Chicago: Herbert S. Stone & Co.       my review

There are some interesting points about this novel: it is one of the oldest novels set on Cape Cod, and the author and main characters are women, but overall it's a thin romance. The protagonists are 2 young women: Amabel and the diarest, from somewhere on the Massachusetts South Shore. They buy horses at auction in Boston - a scary, exciting experience for young ladies. Then they ride from home to Cape Cod, all the way to Provincetown, just for the adventure - they could easily have taken the train, or a steamer, or even bicycles.
 John M Carnes, Boston Daily Globe, 1 Jan 1905;  pg. SM11
John M. Carnes was born in Boston in 1813,  went to sea at age 6, and lived the rest of his life in Provincetown (except for a stint as a '49er.)
Brewster Ship Masters. Capt. J. Henry Sears. 1906. Yarmouthport MA: C. W. Swift
This covers all known Brewster-related ship masters who were engaged in foreign trade, as opposed to packet, coastal and naval captains. Some listings have just a name and era, others have long interesting anecdotes. There are some pictures of ships and captains, but even on paper they are mostly poor reproductions.
Some Remarks on Gulls. Henry Van Dyke. 1907 in Days Off and Other Digressions. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
Several stories in this book are entertaining or thoughtful, unlike those is his The Blue Flower (1902).
Parker J. Hall. Boston Daily Globe; Feb 16, 1908; pg. 37
Captain Hall was owner, master and crew of the small schooner Angler, transporting cargoes in Connecticut, Rhode Island and southern Massachusetts.
The Otter of Eastern Massachusetts. William Brewster. 1909. Science 29 (744):551-555
The author reviewed recent evidence and observations of otters, and believed they were a native population rather than recent migrants.
Old Seaport Towns of New England. Hildegarde Hawthorne. 1917. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.
Hawthorne wrote light travel pieces, and included here are chapters on Portsmouth, Plymouth/New Bedford, Provincetown, New London and New Haven. There are several interesting illustrations by John Albert Seaford.
Indian Corn-Hills in Massachusetts. Edmund B. Delabarre; Harris H. Wilder. American Anthropologist, New Series, 22 (3): 203-225. Jul. - Sep 1920.
Remarkably to me, there are still readily observable precolonial or colonial era Indian corn fields at several places in Massachusetts. The Indian practice was to "hill" the corn, hoeing up soil around the stalks, resulting in "mammiform"  hillocks regularly spaced across the fields. They apparently survived when the land was used mostly for pasturage later.
A Report upon the Alewife Fisheries of Massachusetts. David L. Belding. 1920. Boston: Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Conservation, Divsion of Fisheries and Game.
The fisheries were horribly managed, being vastly over-fished by bid-winners, the streams dammed and polluted by farmers and factories. An array of laws to protect the resource were passed, beginning in the 1600s, but nearly always ignored.
Cape Cod and the Old Colony. Albert Perry Brigham. (July 1920) Geographical Review, Vol. 10 (1): 1-22.
An economic history of the Cape, combining geographic, political and industrial factors.
The Agricultural Revolution in New England. Percy W. Bidwell. 1921. The American Historical Review 26 (4): 683-702
This analyzes the shift from self-sufficient subsistence farming to a market economy, in the face of rapid changes in industrial capacity and better transportation.

The Norse Discoverers of America, the Wineland Sagas. review author: W. P. Ker. The English Historical Review, Vol. 37 (146): 267-269. (April 1922)  Oxford University Press.

review of: The Norse Discoverers of America, the Wineland Sagas. Translated and discussed. by G. M. Gathorne-Hardy, F.R.G.S. (Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1921.)
Favorable mention of idea that 'Wonderstrand' was Cape Cod
Fraycar's Fist. Mary Heaton Vorse. 1924. Boni & Liveright
A collection of short stories by a famous activist, with several set on the Cape and Islands.
Huntington's Credit.
    A middle-aged shopkeeper moves on.

Frank Shipley Collins 1848-1920. W. A. Setchell. American Journal of Botany 12 (1): 54-62. Jan 1925.

A biographical obituary of an eminent amateur botanist.

American Privateers of the Revolution. Garner Weld Allen. 1927. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society   

So far what's here are excerpts I think are interesting and relevant. Later, I intend to include the data on likely Cape Cod-related privateers.
Whales and Whaling in New England. Glover M. Allen. 1928. The Scientific Monthly 27 ( 4): 340-343
A short paper on the species commonly found off New England and on local whaling history, with some identification guides.
 Some Sea Terms in Land Speech. Samuel F. Batchelder. 1929. New England Quarterly 2 (4):625-653
Many common phrases were originally nautical (though I find many occupations claim to be a rich source). Many of Batchelder's examples are obscure to me, but he was writing a generation before I was born.
 New England in the Seventeen-Thirties. H. B. Parkes. 1930. The New England Quarterly 3 (3): 397-419
A paper on cultural changes, as Calvinist settlers evolved to wealthier and more liberal citizens, especially in the cities.
The Yankee of the Yards. The biography of Gustavus Franklin Swift. Louis F. Swift & Arthur Van Vlissingen. 1927. Chicago & New York: AW Shaw
Swift was born in Sandwich, married Ann Higgins from Eastham, and ran butcher shops in Eastham, Barnstable and Clinton, Mass. before moving to Chicago to start the famous meat company. The book is an uncritical homage by his son, but interesting anyway. There are 2 chapters here that I found most relevant to my project.
My Father and My Mother. Helen Swift Neilson. 1937. Chicago: privately printed
Helen Swift wrote a much more entertaining book than her brother did about their family. She was a pampered and energetic child, and some of her anecdotes reveal the contrasts between the ways of the hard-scrabble old-time Cape Codders and their newly wealthy descendants. (350 kb, plus illustrations)
The Finns of Cape Cod. Eugene Van Cleef. 1933 New England Quarterly 6(3): 597-601
Finns settled on the Cape in the late 1800s, working the cranberry bogs of the Upper Cape, and shell-fishing in Wellfleet.
reviews by Henry C. Kittredge of several books:
    1933. Colonial Architecture of Cape Cod, Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, Alfred Easton Poor
    1933. Cape Cod Ahoy!, Arthur Wilson Tarbell
    1935. Geography and Geology of the Region including Cape Cod, the Elizabeth Islans, Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, No Man's Land and Block Island, JB Woodworth & Edward Wigglesworth
    1937. Along New England Shores, A. Hyatt Verrill
    1943. Boston Looks Seaward. WPA
    1946. Blue Water Men and Other Cape Codders, Katherine Crosby
    1947. A Pilgrim Returns to Cape Cod, Edward Rowe Snow
    also, review of Kittredge's Mooncussers of Cape Cod, 1937

Old Cape Cod Buildings. William Miller, Jr. 1935. privately printed
This is a pamplet of Miller's woodblock prints.
Full Cargo. More stories by Wilbur Daniel Steele. 1951. Doubleday & Co.
A collections of 19 stories from the 1910s to 1930s. He wrote very well.
Six Dollars.
    Yankee repression blights a life. PDF file
A Devil of a Fellow.
    Outgoing Portuguese fisherman finds a girlfriend is having his child. PDF file
Ungodly Carriages on Cape Cod. Gustavus Swift Paine. 1952. The New England Quarterly, Vol. 25 (2): 181-198.
Rev. Nathaniel Stone, of Harwich, a Harvard man and strict Calvinist, had it in for Rev. Samuel Osborn of Eastham from the start. It took 20 years of nastiness, but he finally was able to drive Osborn away. Along the way, they and their followers wrote pamphlets and letters, while the town and provincial governments were involved in court battles, so the records are extensive.
(J. M. Bumsted wrote another interesting paper on the matter in 1971, in The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 28(3): 413-438.)
The New England Coasting Pilot of Cyprian Southack. Clara Egli LeGear. 1954. Imago Mundi, Vol. 11. pp. 137-144.
Southack (1662-1745) was involved in the military events of the late 17th and early 18th century, and his rather bizarre charts of New England and the Maritimes are still being reproduced.
 The Boston Packets. Henry C. Kittredge. 1964, reprinted 1972, in "Thirty Years of The American Neptune". Ernest S. Dodge, editor.  Cambridge MA: Harvard University. pp. 93-103 (early version serialized in The Cape Cod Beacon, 1937.)
A brief and anecdotal history of the 19th century era, circa 1800-1875, when packets were the major means of transportation between Cape Cod and Boston.
The Battle of Orleans, Massachusetts (1814) and Associated Events. 1964. Richard K. Murdoch. The American Neptune 24: 172-182
This rather sensationalized small skirmish is a staple of Cape Cod history, but is well documented in Admiralty records and American newspapers.
The Realistic Regionalism of Joseph C. Lincoln 1966. Alice P. Kenney.  New-England Galaxy 7 (4): 29-40.
"Cape Cod as presented in the works of Joseph C. Lincoln is discussed in this article which deals with Cape Cod between 1890 and 1910. Pictured is Cape Cod's transition from a center of shipping and fishing to a place to spend a vacation."
Joseph C. Lincoln, W. W. Jacobs, and the Pursuit of Good Humour. 1968. Alice P. Kenney.  Journal of Popular Culture 2(4): 649-664.
"Discusses the literary works of Joseph Crosby Lincoln (1870-1944) and W. W. Jacobs (1863-1943), two popular writers during the Progressive era. Unlike most Progressives, who possessed a negative and pessimistic worldview, Lincoln and Jacobs 'deliberately, resolutely and consistently presented the good rather than the evil side...' "
$tar-Cro$$ed Lovers 1970. Alice P. Kenney. New-England Galaxy 12 (2): 13-24.
"Economic obstacles to marriage in Cape Cod during the 1880's and 1890's as reflected in the writings of Joseph C. Lincoln."
physicians and smallpox on Cape Cod. Included here are 3 article by Fred B. Rogers from The New England Journal of Medicine.
270 (13): 664-666. 26 Mar 1964. Drs. Francis Wicks (1755-1836) and Hugh George Donaldson (1757-1812), of Falmouth Massachusetts
276 (6): 322-324. 9 Feb 1967. Dr. Samuel Lord and the Smallpox epidemic of 1765-66 at Chatham, Massachusetts
278 (1): 21-23. 4 Jan 1968. "Pox Acres" on old Cape Cod.
Rogers asserts that there are many hidden, forgotten pox cemeteries, but his references are to popular books.
physicians, disease and medicine on the Cape & Islands. Included here are 9 short articles, in 2 files, from The Journal of Medical History and Allied Sciences. Physicians like to write about themseleves. (The journal also had a long article, "Samuel Fuller of Plymouth plantation: a 'skillful physician' or 'quacksalver'?" 1992, vol 47:29-48, exploring the extent of Fuller's medical training, deciding he was only weakly trained even by 17th century standards.)
 24:3363-38. Fred B. Rogers. Jul 1969. Dr. James Hedge and the Inoculation Hospital at Yarmouth, Massachusetts, 1797-1801.
   27:81-85. Fred B. Rogers. Jan 1972.  Dr. Samuel Gelston (1727-82), Variolator, and His Son, Dr. Roland Gelston (1761-1829), Vaccinator, from Nantucket
  29:108-111. Fred B. Rogers. Jan 1974. Dr. Samuel Savage (1748-1831): Medical Patriarch of Cape Cod
  32:423-427. Oct 1977. Fred B. Rogers. Dr. Lyman H. Luce (1846-92): Physician-Naturalist of Martha' s Vineyard, Massachusetts
  33:551-554. Fred B. Rogers. Oct 1978. Dr. and Mrs. Algernon Coolidge and the Cotuit Library Association of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

  35:459-460. Fred B. Rogers. Oct 1980. Dr. Edward F. Gleason (1869-1944) of Hyannis, Massachusetts, and the Cape Cod Hospital and Windmill
  36:334-336. Evlin Kinney. Jul 1981. Smallpox in Provincetown, Massachusetts, 1872-73
  37:323-325. Fred B. Rogers. Jul 1982. Dr. Samuel Pitcher (1824-1907): Cape Cod and Castoria
  39:362-365. Fred B. Rogers. Jul 1984. Dr. James M. Watson of Falmouth, Massachusetts: Preventive Medicine on Cape Cod

Random other articles that interested me:
Science for a livelihood. W. F. Flint. Science 8(189): 258. 17 Sep 1886
As an underemployed scientist myself, it is interesting to see complaints from long ago.
June, 1993. Julian Hawthorne. Feb 1893. The Cosmopolitan 14: 450-458
From our perspective, this is an amusing and naive look 100 years into the future, where the flying machine has led to universal peace and self-sufficient prosperity.
A Case of Witchcraft. G. L. Kittredge. 1917. The American Historical Review 23 (1): 1-19
This has little to do with New England, or even America, directly, but is relevant anyway. It concerns some 17th English witchcraft trials. A main point is that formal religious theory and grounds were not the origins of belief in witchcraft, nor relevant to the trials, because the belief was so much a part of their traditional culture.
 The Natural History of Nonsense. 1946. Bergen Evans. New York: Alfred A. Knopf
Evans debunked many old wives tales and many more recent and pernicious prejudices in an amazing and rather fun book.

articles not yet processed:

H.D. Thoreau. Cape Cod. review. 1865. New England and Yale review 24 (92): 602-603 MOA

Thoreau. Bradford Torrey. 1896. Atlantic monthly 78 (470): 822-833 MOA

Mackereling in the "Bay". unstated author. 1857. Putnam's Magazine 9 (54): 575-586 MOA
The bay is not Cape Cod Bay, but the description of the author's adventure as a fisherman is interesting.

A Summer in New England. in 5 parts, 1860. DH Strother. Harpers

21 (121):1-19. 1st: New Haven...
22 (132):721-741. 4th: Mass. South Shore...
23 (134): 145-163. 5th: White Mountains

miscellany. dates. Appleton's Journal miscellany link
Book reviews, speculation and discussion of pre-1600 explorers.

Cape Cod, Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. 1875. Charles Nordhoff. Harper's New Monthly Magazine 51 (301): 52-66 my text link
Light and entertaining description. MOA with pictures

The Aborigines and the Colonists. Edward Eggleston.1883. The Century 26 (1): 96-115 MOA link

The City of Worcester. Fanny Bullock Workman. 1885. The Bay State Monthly 3 (3): 147-165 MOA link

A Model Industrial City. Fanny M. Johnson. 1885. The Bay State Monthly 3 (5): 328-340 MOA link
A description of Holyoke.

Fort Shirley. Prof. A.L. Perry. 1885. The Bay State Monthly 3 (5): 341-348
In Heath, Franklin County. MOA link

The Passing of the New England Fisherman. Winfield M. Thompson. 1896. New England Magazine 19 (6): 675-687 MOA

Provincetown. The Tip of the Cape. Edmund J Carpenter. 1900. New England Magazine, new series 22 (5): 531-548 MOA

Some of the magazine articles above come via the Making of America web projects at University of Michigan and Cornell University. MOA has GIF and PDF images of hundreds of thousands of 19th century book and magazine pages, with parallel but rudimentary Optical Character Reader files. (Some of the OCR files are ready to work with, others are completely unreadable.) I have joined the OCR page files, formatted and proofread them (pretty well). I didn't have space for the illustrations when I started this project, but I hope to get back to the earlier files and put them in. "A picture is worth a thousand words; unfortunately, it consumes the bandwidth of ten thousand words."
JSTOR is a nonprofit storehouse of academic articles, with a nasty permission policy.  Most academic libraries have access to the database, and results come up in Google searches, but JSTOR won't let most people actually read them.

A search of JSTOR.org,  for "Eastham" and "Wellfleet", included these references:

Title: The First Whalemen of Nantucket
Author: Daniel Vickers
Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 40, No. 4. Oct., 1983 , pp. 560-583.

Title: New England Mosaic: A Demographic Analysis for the Seventeenth Century
Author: Richard Archer
Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 47, No. 4. Oct., 1990 , pp. 477-502.

Title: " I heare it so variously reported:" news-letters newspapers and the ministerial network in New England, 1670-1730
Author: Sheila McIntyre
Source: The New England Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 4. (Dec., 1998), pp. 593-614.

Title: European Contact and Indian Depopulation in the Northeast:The Timing of the First Epidemics
Authors: Dean R. Snow; Kim M. Lanphear
Source: Ethnohistory, Vol. 35, No. 1. (Winter, 1988), pp. 15-33.
Abstract: In order to estimate prehistoric Indian population sizes in the New World, it is first necessary to gain a better understanding of the demographic effects of European-introduced diseases. To that end we have reexamined the timing of the first introduction of these diseases into one region, the Northeast. A careful reexamination of the ethnohistoric record combined with a study of the history and process of smallpox has lead us to conclude that this and other such diseases did not enter the Northeast until the seventeenth century, long after the well-documented initial epidemics of the Caribbean and Mexico. Reasons for the lag are suggested.

Title: State Jurisdiction in Tide Water
Author: Charles F. Chamberlayne
Source: Harvard Law Review, Vol. 3, No. 8. (Mar. 15, 1890), pp. 346-374.

Title: Development of a New England Salt Marsh
Author: Alfred C. Redfield
Source: Ecological Monographs, Vol. 42, No. 2. (Spring, 1972), pp. 201-237.
Abstract: The salt marsh at Barnstable, Massachusetts, occupies an embayment into which it has spread during the past 4,000 years. It exhibits all stages of development from the seeding of bare sand flats through the development of intertidal marsh to the formation of mature high marsh underlain by peat deposits more than 20 ft deep. Observations and measurements of the stages of its formation are presented. The geomorphology of the marsh is considered in relation to the factors which have influenced its development, i.e., the ability of halophytes to grow at limited tide levels, the tidal regime, the processes of sedimentation, and the contemporary rise in sea level. The rates at which the early stage of development takes place have been determined by observations during a period of 12 years and the time sequence of later stages by radiocarbon analyses.

Title: Biogeochemical Effects of Seawater Restoration to Diked Salt Marshes
Authors: J. W. Portnoy; A. E. Giblin
Source: Ecological Applications, Vol. 7, No. 3. (Aug., 1997), pp. 1054-1063.
Abstract: We conducted greenhouse microcosm experiments to examine the biogeochemical effects of restoring seawater to historically diked Cape Cod salt marshes. Peat cores from both seasonally flooded and drained diked marshes were waterlogged with seawater, and porewater chemistry was subsequently monitored for 21 mo. The addition of seawater to highly organic, seasonally flooded peat caused the death of freshwater wetland plants, 6-8 cm of sediment subsidence, and increased N and P mineralization. Also, sulfides and alkalinity increased 10-fold, suggesting accelerated decomposition by sulfate reduction. Addition of seawater to the low-organic-content acidic peat from the drained marsh increased porewater pH, alkalinity, PO$_4$-P, and Fe(II), which we attribute to the reestablishment of SO4 and Fe(III) mineral reduction. Increased cation exchange contributed to 6-fold increases in dissolved Fe(II) and Al and 60-fold increases in NH4-N within 6 mo of salination. Seawater reintroductions to seasonally flooded diked marshes will cause porewater sulfides to increase, likely reducing the success of revegetation efforts. Sulfide toxicity is of less concern in resalinated drained peats because of the abundance of Fe(II) to precipitate sulfides, and of NH4-H to offset sulfide inhibition of N uptake. Restoration of either seasonally flooded or drained diked marshes could stimulate potentially large nutrient and Fe(II) releases, which could in turn increase primary production and lower oxygen in receiving waters. These findings suggest that tidal restoration be gradual and carefully monitored.

Title: Prehistoric Land Use on Outer Cape Cod
Author: Francis P. McManamon
Source: Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 9, No. 1. (Spring, 1982), pp. 1-20.
Abstract: Preliminary analysis of archeological survey data indicates that prehistoric use of coastal southern New England (represented by outer Cape Cod, Massachusetts) was year-round and more diverse than has been suggested by the traditional emphasis on coastal shell middens. Prehistoric settlement seems to have been concentrated mainly at a few locations with large, intervening unsettled areas. A stratified random sampling strategy allowed estimates of the relative frequency of different kinds and magnitudes of activities in and between the intensively settled sections. Quantitative analysis of the lithic assemblages and structural characteristics of discovered sites permitted inferences about the kinds and intensity of prehistoric activities.

Title: The Age and Development of the Provincelands Hook, Outer Cape Cod, Massachusetts
Authors: John M. Zeigler; Sherwood D. Tuttle; Herman J. Tasha; Graham S. Giese
Source: Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 10, Supplement: Alfred C. Redfield 75th Anniversary Volume. (Nov., 1965), pp. 298-311.
Abstract: The Provincelands Hook, an area of marshes and dunes, was built out from the northern end of the glacial deposits of Outer Cape Cod. The hook, a wedge 60 m at its thickest, of marine, beach, and dune material, rests in part on Tertiary Coastal Plain sediments that are probably only an isolated patch on the crystalline basement. About 18,000 years ago, when late Tazewell ice melted away from the region of present day Cape Cod, the Gulf of Maine was filled with ice, and Georges Bank was above sea level. Between 18,000 and 6,000 years ago, sand that eroded from the coast was moved along the east side of Cape Cod from north to south, where it accumulated as a part of the sand wave complex southeast of the cape. Waves from the east and southeast that would have tended to move sand northward along the Cape were blocked by Georges Shoals and Nantucket Shoals. By 6,000 years ago, sea level had so risen that deeper water over Georges Bank permitted more waves to reach Cape Cod from the east and southeast. The dominant direction of littoral drift which had been to the south, then received a strong north component and material moved northward, accumulating to form the Provincelands Hook. Based on $^14C$ dates and other evidence, the hook formed between 6,000 years ago and the present and is still growing. Shoreline reconstructions are guided by $^14C$ dates, well information, regional topography, and known behavior of hooks. It is noted that hooks are characteristic features of Cape Cod spits and tend to trap lakes behind them. The depressions containing lakes in the modern Provincelands are interpreted as low areas trapped behind hooks. A change in the growth habits of spits is thought to have taken place about 2,000 years ago, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in the rate of rise of sea level.

Title: Jurisdiction of the Colonial Courts over the Indians in Massachusetts, 1689-1763
Author: Yasu Kawashima
Source: The New England Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 4. (Dec., 1969), pp. 532-550.

Title: Legal Origins of the Indian Reservation in Colonial Massachusetts
Author: Yasu Kawashima
Source: The American Journal of Legal History, Vol. 13, No. 1. (Jan., 1969), pp. 42-56.

Title: Publication and the Puritan Minister
Author: George Selement
Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 37, No. 2. (Apr., 1980), pp. 219-241.

Title: The Treatment of the Indians in Plymouth Colony
Author: David Bushnell
Source: The New England Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 2. (Jun., 1953), pp. 193-218.

Title: The Timeless Space of Edward Hopper
Author: Jean Gillies
Source: Art Journal, Vol. 31, No. 4. (Summer, 1972), pp. 404-412.

Title: Revolutionary Economic Policy in Massachusetts
Authors: Oscar Handlin; Mary F. Handlin
Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 4, No. 1. (Jan., 1947), pp. 3-26.

Title: The Military System of Plymouth Colony
Author: Douglas Edward Leach
Source: The New England Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 3. (Sep., 1951), pp. 342-364.

Title: The Law of Ponds
Authors: Samuel D. Warren; Louis D. Brandeis
Source: Harvard Law Review, Vol. 3, No. 1. (Apr. 15, 1889), pp. 1-22.

Title: Another View of the Pilgrims
Author: Lawrence Willson
Source: The New England Quarterly, Vol. 34, No. 2. (Jun., 1961), pp. 160-177.

Title: The Formation of Cape Cod (Continued)
Author: Warren Upham
Source: The American Naturalist, Vol. 13, No. 9. (Sep., 1879), pp. 552-565.

Title: Great Ponds
Author: Thos. M. Stetson
Source: Harvard Law Review, Vol. 2, No. 7. (Feb. 15, 1889), pp. 316-331.

Title: The Beginnings of American Landscape Painting
Author: Abbott Lowell Cummings
Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 3. (Nov., 1952), pp. 93-99.

Title: A Shell Heap Site on Griffin Island, Wellfleet, Massachusetts
Author: Ross Moffett
Source: American Antiquity, Vol. 28, No. 1. (Jul., 1962), pp. 96-100.
Abstract: A group of small middens has yielded cultural materials that are characteristic of Cape Cod. A Middle Woodland stage having grit-tempered, dentate- and rocker-stamped pottery, stemmed and side-notched points was followed by a Late Woodland 1 stage using course shell-tempered, straight-sided vessels, and large triangular points. A late Woodland 2, or final, stage had fine shell-tempered, globular pots, to some extent suggestive of late Windsor< pottery of the coastal section west of Cape Cod.

Title: Thoreau and Beston Two Observers of Cape Cod
Author: Edward B. Hinckley
Source: The New England Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 2. (Apr., 1931), pp. 216-229.

Title: Cape Cod and Plymouth Colony in the Seventeenth Century.
Author: Ann Marie Plane
Author of Work: H. Roger King
Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 52, No. 2. (Apr., 1995), pp. 351-353.

Title: The Cape Cod House: An Introductory Study
Author: Ernest Allen Connally
Source: The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 19, No. 2. (May, 1960), pp. 47-56.

Title: Thoreau's Guide to Cape Cod (Review)
Author: Kenyon S. Tweedell
Authors of Work: Henry David Thoreau; Alexander B. Adams
Source: American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 69, No. 2. (Apr., 1963), p. 510.

Title: Culture Dynamics in Eastern Massachusetts
Author: Ripley P. Bullen
Source: American Antiquity, Vol. 14, No. 1. (Jul., 1948), pp. 36-48.

Title: The Original Forest Types of Southern New England
Author: Stanley W. Bromley
Source: Ecological Monographs, Vol. 5, No. 1. (Jan., 1935), pp. 61-89.

Title: New Light Wanted on the Old Colony
Author: Samuel Eliot Morison
Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 15, No. 3. (Jul., 1958), pp. 359-364.

Title: The Pilgrims and Their Harbor
Author: Darrett B. Rutman
Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 17, No. 2. (Apr., 1960), pp. 164-182.

Title: Sand Dune Stabilization on Cape Cod
Authors: Karol J. Kucinski; Walter S. Eisenmenger
Source: Economic Geography, Vol. 19, No. 2. (Apr., 1943), pp. 206-214.

Title: A History of the Marconi Company (Review)
Author: Hugh G. J. Aitken
Author of Work: W. J. Baker
Source: The Business History Review, Vol. 47, No. 3. (Autumn, 1973), pp. 401-404.

Title: A Biological Survey of the Waters of Woods Hole and Vicinity (Review)
Author: Frank S. Collins
Source: Science, New Series, Vol. 38, No. 982. (Oct. 24, 1913), pp. 595-597.

Title: The Wreck of the Steamer "Portland"
Author: Thomas Harrison Eames
Source: The New England Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 2. (Jun., 1940), pp. 191-206.

Title: Ontogeny of a Salt Marsh Estuary
Author: Alfred C. Redfield
Source: Science, New Series, Vol. 147, No. 3653. (Jan. 1, 1965), pp. 50-55.
Abstract: The development of a typical New England salt marsh, and the growth of the sand spit which shelters it, during the past 4000 years has been reconstructed from soundings and borings of the peat. The results have been interpreted with the aid of observations on the structure of the marsh and estimates of the rate of its vertical accretion based on carbon-14 determinations.

Title: The Rose Site, a Stratified Shell Heap on Cape Cod, Massachusetts
Author: Ross Moffett
Source: American Antiquity, Vol. 17, No. 2. (Oct., 1951), pp. 98-107.

Title: The Massachusetts Convention of Towns, 1768
Author: Richard D. Brown
Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 26, No. 1. (Jan., 1969), pp. 94-104.

Title: Borrowed Rhetoric: The Massachusetts Excise Controversy of 1754
Author: Paul S. Boyer
Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 21, No. 3. (Jul., 1964), pp. 328-351.

Title: Income and Ideology: Harvard-Trained Clergymen in the Eighteenth Century
Author: Stephen Botein
Source: Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 13, No. 4. (Summer, 1980), pp. 396-413.

Title: Houses and Gardens of the New England Indians
Author: Charles C. Willoughby
Source: American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 8, No. 1. (Jan.- Mar., 1906), pp. 115-132.

Title: Peace, Conflict, and Ritual in Puritan Congregations
Author: E. Brooks Holifield
Source: Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 23, No. 3,Religion and History. (Winter, 1993), pp. 551-570.

"Under the Banner of King Death": The Social World of Anglo-American Pirates, 1716 to 1726
Marcus Rediker
William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 38, No. 2 (Apr., 1981) , pp. 203-227

From PubMed serch for historical articles on Cape Cod, Wellfleet, Eastham, Provincetown, Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard:
 J Hist Med Allied Sci. 1976 Apr;31(2):216-8.         
"Dr. Samuel M. Beale, Jr. (1876-1965): Cape Cod practitioner."
Rogers FB.
J Hist Med Allied Sci. 1992 Jan;47(1):29-48.       
"Samuel Fuller of Plymouth plantation: a 'skillful physician' or 'quacksalver'?"
Gevitz N.
PMID: 1556442
 Trans Stud Coll Physicians Phila. 1975 Apr;42(4):441-7.         
"The Lankenau Hospital Research Institute Marine Experimental Station on Cape Cod, 1930-48."
Rogers FB.
 Trans Stud Coll Physicians Phila. 1972 Oct;40(2):127-31.         
"Dr. Peter Pineo (1825-91): Cape Cod surgeon."
Rogers FB.

 collected by David Kew, 2002-2006, for CapeCodHistory.us